1.  World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on the Provision of Wheelchairs in Less-Resourced Settings. Available at:
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.0 2.1 Wheelchair Skills Program. Available at:
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 Dynamic link to PubMed-cited Publications about the Wheelchair Skills Test and Wheelchair Skills Training Program. Available at:
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 Tu C-J, Liu L, Wang W, Du H-P, Wang Y-M, Xu Y-B, Li P. Effectiveness and Safety of Wheelchair Skills Training Program in Improving the Wheelchair Skills Capacity: A Systematic Review. Clin Rehabil. 2017;31:1573-1582.
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 Keeler L, Kirby RL, Parker K, McLean KD, Hayden J. Effectiveness of the Wheelchair Skills Training Program: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology 2018: (Epub ahead of print).
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Kirby RL, Rushton PW, Smith C, Routhier F, Best KL, Cowan R, Giesbrecht E, Koontz A, MacKenzie D, Mortenson B, Parker K, Smith E, Sonenblum S, Tawashy A, Toro M, Worobey, L.Wheelchair Skills Program Manual. Available at:
  7.  Gowran RJ, Bray N, Goldberg M, Rushton P, Barhouche Abou Saab M, Constantine D, Ghosh R, Pearlman J. Understanding the global challenges to accessing appropriate wheelchairs: position paper. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021 Mar 24;18(7):3338.
  8.  Giesbrecht E. Wheelchair Skills Test Outcomes across Multiple Wheelchair Skills Training Bootcamp Cohorts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021 Dec 21;19(1):21.
  9.  WST Video and WST Report Form for a person with a spinal cord injury. See Example 7 at
  10.  Wheelchair Skills Program. Manual Wheelchair Skills Tests – Example 7 Spinal Cord Injury. Available from:[last accessed 30/10/17]
  11.  Kirby RL, Worobey LA, Cowan R, Presperin Pedersen J, Heinemann AW, Dyson-Hudson TA, Shea M, Smith C, Rushton PW, Boninger ML.Wheelchair Skills Capacity and Performance of Manual Wheelchair Users with Spinal Cord Injury.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016;97:1761-9.