1.  Leucht P, Fischer K, Muhr G, Mueller EJ. Epidemiology of traumatic spine fractures. Injury. 2009 Feb 1;40(2):166-72.
  2.  Whitney E, Alastra AJ. Vertebral Fracture. Available from: (last accessed 18.4.2020)
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Kandabarow A. Injuries of the thoracolumbar spine. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal. 1997 Sep 1;19(3):65-80.
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 O’Connor E, Walsham J. Indications for thoracolumbar imaging in blunt trauma patients: a review of current literature. Emerg Med Australas 2009;21(2):94-101.
  5.  Tisot RA, Avanzi O. Laminar fractures as a severity marker in burst fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery. 2009 Dec;17(3):261-4.
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Alpantaki K, Bano A, Pasku D, Mavrogenis AF, Papagelopoulos PJ, Sapkas GS, Korres DS, Katonis P. Thoracolumbar burst fractures: a systematic review of management. Orthopedics. 2010 Jun 1;33(6):422-9.
  7. ↑ Jump up to:7.0 7.1 Demir SÖ, Akn C, Aras M, Köseoglu F. Spinal cord injury associated with thoracic osteoporotic fracture. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2007 Mar 1;86(3):242-6.
  8. ↑ Jump up to:8.0 8.1 Lentle BC, Brown JP, Khan A, Leslie WD, Levesque J, Lyons DJ, Siminoski K, Tarulli G, Josse RG, Hodsman A. Recognizing and reporting vertebral fractures: reducing the risk of future osteoporotic fractures. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2007 Feb 15;58(1):27-36.
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Marré B, Ballesteros V, Martínez C, Zamorano JJ, Ilabaca F, Munjin M, Yurac R, Urzúa A, Lecaros M, Fleiderman J. Thoracic spine fractures: injury profile and outcomes of a surgically treated cohort. European Spine Journal. 2011 Sep 1;20(9):1427-33.
  10. ↑ Jump up to:10.0 10.1 10.2 Singh R, Taylor DM, D’Souza D, Gorelik A, Page P, Phal P. Mechanism of injury and clinical variables in thoracic spine fracture: a case control study. Hong Kong J Emerg Med. 2011;18(1):5-12.
  11. ↑ Jump up to:11.0 11.1 Holmes JF, Panacek EA, Miller PQ, Lapidis AD, Mower WR. Prospective evaluation of criteria for obtaining thoracolumbar radiographs in trauma patients. The Journal of emergency medicine. 2003 Jan 1;24(1):1-7.
  12.  Friedrich M, Gittler G, Pieler-Bruha E. Misleading history of pain location in 51 patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. European Spine Journal. 2006 Dec 1;15(12):1797-800.
  13.  Diaz J, Cullinane D, Vaslef S, et al. Practice management guidelines for the screening of thoracolumbar spine fracture. J Trauma 2007;63(3):709-18.
  14.  Masharawi Y, Rothschild B, Peled N, Hershkovitz I. A simple radiological method for recognizing osteoporotic thoracic vertebral compression fractures and distinguishing them from Scheuermann disease. Spine. 2009 Aug 15;34(18):1995-9.
  15. ↑ Jump up to:15.0 15.1 Shen WJ, Liu TJ, Shen YS. Nonoperative treatment versus posterior fixation for thoracolumbar junction burst fractures without neurologic deficit. Spine. 2001 May 1;26(9):1038-45.
  16. ↑ Jump up to:16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Wood KB, Buttermann GR, Phukan R, Harrod CC, Mehbod A, Shannon B, Bono CM, Harris MB. Operative compared with nonoperative treatment of a thoracolumbar burst fracture without neurological deficit: a prospective randomized study with follow-up at sixteen to twenty-two years. JBJS. 2015 Jan 7;97(1):3-9.
  17.  Weninger P, Schultz A, Hertz H. Conservative management of thoracolumbar and lumbar spine compression and burst fractures: functional and radiographic outcomes in 136 cases treated by closed reduction and casting. Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery. 2009 Feb 1;129(2):207-19.
  18. ↑ Jump up to:18.0 18.1 Giele BM, Wiertsema SH, Beelen A, van der Schaaf M, Lucas C, Been HD, Bramer JA. No evidence for the effectiveness of bracing in patients with thoracolumbar fractures: a systematic review. Acta orthopaedica. 2009 Jan 1;80(2):226-32.
  19. ↑ Jump up to:19.0 19.1 19.2 van Leeuwen PJ, Bos RP, Derksen JC, de Vries J. Assessment of spinal movement reduction by thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthoses. Journal of rehabilitation research and development. 2000 Jul 1;37(4):395.
  20. ↑ Jump up to:20.0 20.1 Dai LY, Jiang LS, Jiang SD. Posterior short-segment fixation with or without fusion for thoracolumbar burst fractures. A five to seven-year prospective randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009;91:1033-41.(LoE:2B)
  21. ↑ Jump up to:21.0 21.1 Rousing R, Hansen KL, Andersen M, Jespersen SM, Thomsen K, Lauritsen JM. Twelve-months follow-up in forty-nine patients with acute/semiacute osteoporotic vertebral fractures treated conservatively or with percutaneous vertebroplasty. Spine 2010;35(5):478-82.(LoE:1B)
  22. ↑ Jump up to:22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 Cahoj PA, Cook JL, Robinson BS. Efficacy of percutaneous vertebral augmentation and use of physical therapy intervention following vertebral compression fractures in older adults: a systematic review. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2007;30(1):31-40. (LoE:3A)
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 Bennell KL, Matthews B, Greig A, Briggs A, Kelly A, Sherburn M, Larsen J, Wark J. Effects of an exercise and manual therapy program on physical impairments, function and quality-of-life in people with osteoporotic vertebral fracture: a randomised, single-blind controlled pilot trial. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2010 Dec;11(1):36.
  24.  Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. 2nd ed. Revised. Alexandria, Va: American Physical Therapy Association; 2003.(LoE:5)
  25.  Huntoon EA, Schmidt CK, Sinaki M. Significantly fewer refractures after vertebroplasty in patients who engage in back-extensor-strengthening exercises. Mayo Clin Proc 2008;83(1):54-7.(LoE:1B)
  26.  Sinaki M, Itoi E, Wahner HW, Wollan P, Gelzcer R, Mullan BP, et al. Stronger back muscles reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures: a prospective 10 year follow-up of postmenopausal women. Bone 2002;30(6):836-41.(LoE:2B)