1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 Texas Back Institute Spinal Instability Available from: (last accessed 3.5.2020)
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.0 2.1 D.G. Lee, Rotational instability of the mid-thoracic spine : assessment and management, 1996, Manual Therapy
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 O’Sullivan, Peter B. “Masterclass. Lumbar segmental ‘instability’: clinical presentation and specific stabilizing exercise management.” Manual therapy 5.1 (2000): 2-12.
  4.  Panjabi, Manohar M., Jeff N. Hausfeld, and Augustus A. White. “A biomechanical study of the ligamentous stability of the thoracic spine in man.” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 52.3 (1981): 315-326.
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 5.2 Virginia Spine Institute Spinal Instability Available from: (last accessed 3.5.2020)
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 I. Oda et al, Biomechanical role of posterieur elements, costovertebral joints, and rib cage in the stability of the thoracic spine, 1996, Spine
  7.  A.J. Bevevino et al, Iatrogenic spinal instability: Cervical and thoracic spine, 2013, S E M IN S P I N E S U R G
  8. ↑ Jump up to:8.0 8.1 D.O. Kaya et al, Effects of different segmental spinal stabilization exercise protocols on postural stability in asymptomatic subjects randomized controlled trial, 2012, Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation
  9.  Liebenson, Craig, ed. Rehabilitation of the spine: a practitioner’s manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007.
  10.  S. Maeo et al, Trunk Muscle Activities during Abdominal Bracing: Comparison among Muscles and Exercises, 2013, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
  11.  F.J. Vera-Garcia, J.L. Elvira, S.H. Brown and S.M. McGill, Effects of abdominal stabilization maneuvers on the control of spine motion and stability against sudden trunk perturbations, J Electromyogr Kinesiol 17(5) (2007), 556-67
  12.  Skoch, Jesse, et al. “Bracing after surgical stabilization of thoracolumbar fractures: a systematic review of evidence, indications, and practices.” World neurosurgery 93 (2016): 221-228.