1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 Littlewood C, Ashton J, Chance-Larsen K, May S, Sturrock B. Exercise for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review. Physiotherapy. 2012 Jun 1;98(2):101-9.
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Edwards P, Ebert J, Joss B, Bhabra G, Ackland T, Wang A. Exercise rehabilitation in the non-operative management of rotator cuff tears: a review of the literature. International journal of sports physical therapy. 2016 Apr;11(2):279.
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 Ainsworth R, Lewis J, Conboy V. A prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial of a rehabilitation programme for patients with a diagnosis of massive rotator cuff tears of the shoulder. Shoulder & Elbow. 2009 Jul 1;1(1):55-60.
  4.  Haahr JP, Andersen JH. Exercises may be as efficient as subacromial decompression in patients with subacromial stage II impingement: 4-8-years’ follow-up in a prospective, randomized study. Scand J Rheumatol. 2006;35:224-8.
  5.  Ketola S, Lehtinen J, Rousi T, Nissinen M, Huhtala H, Konttinen YT, et al. No evidence of long-term benefits of arthroscopic acromioplasty in the treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome: Five- year results of a randomised controlled trial. Bone & joint research. 2013;2:132-9.
  6.  Kukkonen J, Joukainen A, Lehtinen J, Mattila KT, Tuominen EK, Kauko T, et al. Treatment of non- traumatic rotator cuff tears: A randomised controlled trial with one-year clinical results. The bone & joint journal. 2014;96-B:75-81.
  7.  Lewis J. Rotator cuff related shoulder pain: assessment, management and uncertainties. Manual therapy. 2016 Jun 1;23:57-68.
  8.  McEvoy J, O’Sullivan K, Bron C. Therapeutic exercises for the shoulder region. Manual Therapy for Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes: An Evidence-and Clinical-Informed Approach. 2015 Apr 28;373.
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Kibler WB. The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function. Am J Sports Med 1998;26:325-337 Level of Evidence: 3B
  10.  Cleland J: A lecture on the shoulder girdle and its movements. Lancet 1881;1:11-12.
  11.  Smith J et al., Effect of scapular protraction and retraction on isometric shoulder elevation strength. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:367–70. Level of evidence: 3B.
  12.  Codman EA: The Shoulder,Boston: G.Miller &amp Company,1934
  13.  Wattanaprakornkul D, Halaki M, Cathers I, Ginn KA. Direction-specific recruitment of rotator cuff muscles during bench press and row. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2011 Dec 1;21(6):1041-9.
  14.  Wattanaprakornkul D, Halaki M, Boettcher C, Cathers I, Ginn KA. A comprehensive analysis of muscle recruitment patterns during shoulder flexion: An electromyographic study. Clinical Anatomy 2011;24:619–26.
  15.  Kido T, Itoi E, Lee SB, Neale PG, An KN. Dynamic stabilizing function of the deltoid muscle in shoulders with anterior instability. The American journal of sports medicine. 2003 Mar;31(3):399-403.
  16.  Franke AR, Botton CE, Rodrigues R, Pinto RS, Lima CS. Analysis of anterior, middle and posterior deltoid activation during single and multijoint exercises. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 2015;55(7-8):714-21.
  17. ↑ Jump up to:17.0 17.1 O’Keeffe M, Hayes A, Mccreesh K, Purtill H, O’sullivan K. Are Group-Based And Individual Physiotherapy Exercise Programmes Equally Effective For Musculoskeletal Conditions? A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Jun 24:Bjsports-2015.
  18.  Barrett E, Conroy C, Corcoran M, O’Sullivan K, Purtill H, Lewis J, McCreesh K. An Evaluation Of Two Types Of Exercise Classes, Containing Shoulder Exercises Or A Combination Of Shoulder And Thoracic Exercises, For The Treatment Of Nonspecific Shoulder Pain: A Case Series. Journal Of Hand Therapy. 2017 Dec 4.
  19.  Smith BE, Hendrick P, Smith TO, Bateman M, Moffatt F, Rathleff MS, Selfe J, Logan P. Should exercises be painful in the management of chronic musculoskeletal pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2017 Jul 12:bjsports-2016.
  20.  McCreesh KM, Purtill H, Donnelly AE, Lewis JS. Increased supraspinatus tendon thickness following fatigue loading in rotator cuff tendinopathy: potential implications for exercise therapy. BMJ open sport & exercise medicine. 2017 Dec 1;3(1):e000279.
  21. ↑ Jump up to:21.0 21.1 21.2 Kisner C, Colby LA, Borstad J. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques. Fa Davis; 2017 Oct 18.