1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Williams G, Strength Training in Neurological Rehabilitation Course, Plus 2019
  2.  Royal College of Physicians Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party. National Clinical Guidelines for Stroke. 3rd ed. London,UK: Royal College of Physicians; 2008.
  3.  Olivetti L, Schurr K, Sherrington C, et al. A novel weightbearing strengthening program during rehabilitation of older people is feasible and improves standing up more than a nonweight-bearing strengthening program: a randomised trial.Aust J Physiother. 2007:53:147-153.
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 Kjølhede T, Vissing K, Dalgas U. Multiple sclerosis and progressive resistance training: a systematic review. Multiple Sclerosis Journal. 2012 Sep;18(9):1215-28.
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 Patrocinio de Oliveira CE, Moreira OC, Carrión-Yagual ZM, Medina-Pérez C, de Paz JA. Effects of Classic Progressive Resistance Training Versus Eccentric-Enhanced Resistance Training in People With Multiple Sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018;99(5):819-25.
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 Mañago MM, Glick S, Hebert JR, Coote S, Schenkman M. Strength training to improve gait in people with multiple sclerosis: a critical review of exercise parameters and intervention approaches. Int J MS Care. 2019;21(2):47-56.
  7.  Kanegusuku H, Silva-Batista C, Peçanha T, Nieuwboer A, Silva ND Jr, Costa LA et al. Effects of Progressive Resistance Training on Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;98(11):2134-41.
  8.  Helgerud J, Thomsen SN, Hoff J, Strandbråten A, Leivseth G, Unhjem R, Wang E. Maximal strength training in patients with Parkinson’s disease: impact on efferent neural drive, force-generating capacity, and functional performance. J Appl Physiol. 2020;129(4):683-90.
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Kalron A, Mahameed I, Weiss I, Rosengarten D, Balmor GR, Heching M, Kramer MR. Effects of a 12-week combined aerobic and strength training program in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial. J Neurol. 2021;268(5):1857-66.
  10.  Ada L, Dorsch S, Canning CG. Strengthening interventions increase strength and improve activity after stroke: a systematic review. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 2006 Jan 1;52(4):241-8.
  11.  Morris SL, Dodd KJ, Morris ME. Outcomes of progressive resistance strength training following stroke: a systematic review. Clinical rehabilitation. 2004 Feb;18(1):27-39.
  12.  Dodd KJ, Taylor NF, Damiano DL. A systematic review of the effectiveness of strength-training programs for people with cerebral palsy. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2002 Aug 1;83(8):1157-64.
  13.  Van De Port IG, Wood-Dauphinee S, Lindeman E, Kwakkel G. Effects of exercise training programs on walking competency after stroke: a systematic review. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2007 Nov 1;86(11):935-51.
  14. ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 14.2 Williams G, Kahn M, Randall A. Strength training for walking in neurologic rehabilitation is not task specific: a focused review. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2014 Jun 1;93(6):511-22.
  15.  Veldema J, Jansen P. Resistance training in stroke rehabilitation: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil. 2020;34(9):1173-97.
  16.  Schwartz MH, Rozumalski A, Trost JP. The effect of walking speed on the gait of typically developing children. Journal of biomechanics. 2008 Jan 1;41(8):1639-50.
  17.  Huijben B, van Schooten KS, van Dieën JH, Pijnappels M. The effect of walking speed on quality of gait in older adults. Gait Posture. 2018;65:112-6.
  18.  Sawicki GS, Lewis CL, Ferris DP. It pays to have a spring in your step. Exercise and sport sciences reviews. 2009 Jul;37(3):130.
  19. ↑ Jump up to:19.0 19.1 Christian Bosse Power Training vs Strength Training – what is the difference between Strength Training and Power Training? Available from: (last accessed 7.2.2020)
  20.  Van Vulpen LF, De Groot S, Rameckers E, Becher JG, Dallmeijer AJ. Improved walking capacity and muscle strength after functional power-training in young children with cerebral palsy. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair. 2017 Sep;31(9):827-41.
  21.  Gjesdal BE, Mæland S, Williams G, Aaslund MK, Rygh CB, Cumming KT. Can adults with cerebral palsy perform and benefit from ballistic strength training to improve walking outcomes? A mixed methods feasibility study. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2021;13(1):160.
  22.  Williams G, Clark RA, Hansson J, Paterson K. Feasibility of ballistic strengthening exercises in neurologic rehabilitation. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2014 Sep 1;93(9):828-33.
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 Williams G, Ada L. The safety and accuracy of home-based ballistic resistance training for people with neurological conditions. Physiother Theory Pract. 2022:1-10.
  24.  Leg press jump squats . Available from:
  25.  American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2009 Mar;41(3):687. Available from: (last accessed 7.2.2020)
  26.  Williams G, Morris ME, Schache A, McCrory P. Observational gait analysis in traumatic brain injury: Accuracy of clinical judgment. Gait & posture. 2009 Apr 1;29(3):454-9.
  27.  Williams G, Schache AG. The distribution of positive work and power generation amongst the lower-limb joints during walking normalises following recovery from traumatic brain injury. Gait & posture. 2016 Jan 1;43:265-9.
  28.  Canning CG, Shepherd RB, Carr JH, Alison JA, Wade L, White A. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of intensive sit-to-stand training after recent traumatic brain injury on sit-to-stand performance. Clinical rehabilitation. 2003 Jun;17(4):355-62.