1. ↑ Jump up to:1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Sessler CN, Gosnell MS, Grap MJ, Brophy GM, O’Neal PV, Keane KA, Tesoro EP, Elswick RK. The Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale: validity and reliability in adult intensive care unit patients. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2002 Nov 15;166(10):1338-44.
  2.  Khan BA, Guzman O, Campbell NL, Walroth T, Tricker JL, Hui SL, Perkins A, Zawahiri M, Buckley JD, Farber MO, Ely EW. Comparison and agreement between the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale in evaluating patients’ eligibility for delirium assessment in the ICU. Chest. 2012 Jul 1;142(1):48-54.
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Accessed July 5, 2020:
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Ely EW, Truman B, Shintani A, Thomason JW, Wheeler AP, Gordon S, Francis J, Speroff T, Gautam S, Margolin R, Sessler CN. Monitoring sedation status over time in ICU patients: reliability and validity of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). Jama. 2003 Jun 11;289(22):2983-91.
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 5.2 Rasheed AM, Amirah MF, Abdallah M, Parameaswari PJ, Issa M, Alharthy A. Ramsay sedation scale and richmond agitation sedation scale: A Cross-sectional study. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2019 Mar 1;38(2):90-5.
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 6.2 Almgren M, Lundmark M, Samuelson K. The Richmond Agitation‐Sedation Scale: translation and reliability testing in a Swedish intensive care unit. Acta anaesthesiologica scandinavica. 2010 Jul;54(6):729-35.
  7. ↑ Jump up to:7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Nassar Junior AP, Pires Neto RC, Figueiredo WB, Park M. Validity, reliability and applicability of Portuguese versions of sedation-agitation scales among critically ill patients. Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 2008 Jul;126(4):215-9.
  8.  Benítez-Rosario MA, Castillo-Padrós M, Garrido-Bernet B, González-Guillermo T, Martínez-Castillo LP, González A, Asocación Canaria de Cuidados Paliativos (CANPAL) Research Network. Appropriateness and reliability testing of the modified Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale in Spanish patients with advanced cancer. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2013 Jun 1;45(6):1112-9.
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Vasilevskis EE, Morandi A, Boehm L, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Jackson JC, Thompson JL, Shintani A, Gordon SM, Pun BT, Wesley Ely E. Delirium and sedation recognition using validated instruments: reliability of bedside intensive care unit nursing assessments from 2007 to 2010. Journal of the American geriatrics society. 2011 Nov;59:S249-55.
  10.  Kerson AG, DeMaria R, Mauer E, Joyce C, Gerber LM, Greenwald BM, Silver G, Traube C. Validity of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) in critically ill children. Journal of Intensive Care. 2016 Dec 1;4(1):65.
  11.  Devlin JW, Skrobik Y, Gélinas C, Needham DM, Slooter AJ, Pandharipande PP, Watson PL, Weinhouse GL, Nunnally ME, Rochwerg B, Balas MC. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disruption in adult patients in the ICU. Critical care medicine. 2018 Sep 1;46(9):e825-73.