1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 The Italian Thoracic Society (AIPO – ITS) and Italian Respirarory Society (SIP/IRS). Managing the Respiratory Care of Patients with COVID-19. Version – March 08, 2020 [Available from:]
  2.  Yuksel A, Karadogan D, Gurkan CG, Akyil FT, Toreyin ZN, Marim F, Arikan H, Eyuboglu TS, Emiralioglu N, Serifoglu I, Develi E. Unclear Issues Regarding COVID-19. The Eurasian Journal of Medicine. 2020 Jun;52(2):191.
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 World Health Organisation. Clinical Management of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) when COVID-19 Disease is Suspected – Interim Guidance. WHO, 13 March 2020
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Rachael Moses, Consultant Respiratory Physiotherapist. COVID-19 Respiratory Physiotherapy On Call Information and Guidance.Lancashire Teaching Hospitals. Version 2 Dated 14th March 2020
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 5.2 Rachael Moses, Consultant Respiratory Physiotherapist. COVID 19 and Respiratory Physiotherapy Referral Guideline. Lancashire Teaching Hospitals. Version 1 Dated 17th March 2020
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 Thomas P, Baldwin C, Bissett B, Boden I, Gosselink R, Granger CL, Hodgson CL, Jones AYM, Kho ME, Moses R, Ntoumenopoulos G, Parry SM, Patman S, van der Lee L (2020): Physiotherapy management for COVID-19 in the acute hospital setting. Recommendations to guide clinical practice. Version 1.0, published 23 March 2020. Journal of Physiotherapy.
  7.  Review . 2020 Jun 22;75:e2017. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2020/e2017. eCollection 2020. Physiotherapy Care of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – A Brazilian Experience. Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  8. ↑ Jump up to:8.0 8.1 Lazzeri M, Lanza A, Bellini R, Bellofiore A, Cecchetto S, Colombo A et al. Respiratory physiotherapy in patients with COVID-19 infection in acute setting: a Position Paper of the Italian Association of Respiratory Physiotherapists (ARIR). Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease. 2020;90(1).
  9.  Meng L, Qiu H, Wan L, Ai Y, Xue Z, Guo Q, Deshpande R, Zhang L, Meng J, Tong C, Liu H. Intubation and Ventilation amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: Wuhan’s Experience. Anesthesiology. 2020 Mar 19.
  10.  Metro North, Interim infection prevention and control guidelines for the management of COVID-19 in healthcare settings, 2020: control-guidelines.pdf.
  11.  Alhazzani, W., M. Moller, Y. Arabi, M. Loeb, M. Gong, E. Fan, S. Oczkowski, M. Levy, L. Derde, A. Dzierba, B. Du, M. Aboodi, H. Wunsch, M. Cecconi, Y. Koh, D. Chertow, K. Maitland, F. Alshamsi, E. Belley-Cote, M. Greco, M. Laundy, J. Morgan, J. Kesecioglu, A. McGeer, L. Mermel, M. Mammen, P. Alexander, A. Arrington, J. Centofanti, G. Citerio, B. Baw, Z. Memish, N. Hammond, F. Hayden, L. Evans, and A. Rhodes, Surviving sepsis campaign: Guidelines of the Management of Critically Ill Adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Critical Care Medicine, 2020. EPub Ahead of Print.
  12. ↑ Jump up to:12.0 12.1 12.2 Associazione Riabiliatori Dell’Insufficienza Respiratoria. Indicazioni Per La Fisioterapia Respiratoria In Pazienti Con Infezione Da COVID-19.  Updated 16/03/2020
  13. ↑ Jump up to:13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society. ANZICS COVID-19 Guidelines. Melbourne: ANZICS  2020
  14. ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 Ñamendys-Silva SA. Respiratory support for patients with COVID-19 infection. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2020 Mar 5.
  15.  David J Brewster, Nicholas C Chrimes, Thy BT Do, Kirstin Fraser, Chris J Groombridge, Andy Higgs, Matthew J Humar, Timothy J Leeuwenburg, Steven McGloughlin, Fiona G Newman, Chris P Nickson, Adam Rehak, David Vokes and Jonathan J Gatward. Consensus Statement: Safe Airway Society principles of airway management and tracheal intubation specific to the COVID-19 Adult Patient Group. Medical Journal of Australia. Updated 17 March 2020
  16.  Adam Rochester, NIV Lead for Respiratory Support Services. Standard Operating Protocol for the setup and Use of Non-Invasive Ventilation or HiFlow Oxygen (AirVo) for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus. Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust. Version 1.7 – March 17th, 2020
  17.  Messerole E, Peine P, Wittkopp S, Marini JJ, Albert RK. The pragmatics of prone positioning. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2002 May 15;165(10):1359-63.
  18.  Jonathan Downham. Proning the ARDS Patient- Why do we do it?. Available from:[last accessed 17/03/2020]
  19.  Critical Care & Major Trauma Network. Prone Position 1. Available from:[last accessed 17/03/2020]
  20.  Rachael Moses. Physiotherapy Interventions for COVID-19.March 2020. Accessed 18 March 2020
  21.  D Battaglini, C Robba, S Caiffa, L Ball, I Brunetti.Chest physiotherapy: An important adjuvant in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19.Respir Physiol Neurobiol2020 Aug 17
  22.  Lazzeri M, Lanza A, Bellini R, Bellofiore A, Cecchetto S, Colombo A, D’Abrosca F, Del Monaco C, Gaudellio G, Paneroni M, Privitera E. Respiratory physiotherapy in patients with COVID-19 infection in acute setting: a Position Paper of the Italian Association of Respiratory Physiotherapists (ARIR). Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease. 2020 Mar 26;90(1).
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 23.2 Simon Hayward and Dr Chris Duncan. Physiotherapists use of Lung Ultrasound during the COVID-19 Pandemic – A Practical Guideline on supporting Acute Hospital Colleagues. 2020
  24.  Peng, Q.Y., X.T. Wang, L.N. Zhang, and G. Chinese Critical Care Ultrasound Study, Findings of lung ultrasonography of novel corona virus pneumonia during the 2019-2020 epidemic. Intensive Care Med, 2020.
  25.  Tang C, Wang Y, Lv H, Guan Z, Gu J. Caution against corticosteroid-based COVID-19 treatment. The Lancet. 2020 May 25.