1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 Blecher R, Heinemann-Yerushalmi L, Assaraf E, Konstantin N, Chapman JR, Cope TC, Bewick GS, Banks RW, Zelzer E. New functions for the proprioceptive system in skeletal biology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018 Sep 24;373(1759):20170327.
  2.  Kahn J, Shwartz Y, Blitz E, Krief S, Sharir A, Breitel DA, Rattenbach R, Relaix F, Maire P, Rountree RB, Kingsley DM, Zelzer E. Muscle contraction is necessary to maintain joint progenitor cell fate. Dev Cell. 2009 May;16(5):734-43.
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 Grigg PW. Peripheral Neural Mechanisms in Proprioception. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation,1994;3: 2-17.
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 Simpson H. Understanding the ankle-Proprioception of the ankle Course. Plus2022
  5.  Marzvanyan A, Alhawaj AF. Physiology, Sensory Receptors. [Updated 2021 Aug 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from:
  6.  Macefield VG.The roles of mechanoreceptors in muscle and skin in human proprioception. Current Opinion in Physiology, 2021; 21:48-56.
  7. ↑ Jump up to:7.0 7.1 Skinner HB, Barrack RL, Cook SD. Age-related decline in proprioception. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984 Apr;(184):208-11.
  8.  Kaplan FS, Nixon JE, Reitz M, Rindfleish L, Tucker J. Age-related changes in proprioception and sensation of joint position. Acta Orthop Scand. 1985 Feb;56(1):72-4.
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Ribeiro F, Oliveira J. Aging effects on joint proprioception: the role of physical activity in proprioception preservation. Eur Rev Aging Phys, 2007; Act 4: 71–76.
  10.  Panjabi MM. The stabilizing system of the spine. Part I. Function, dysfunction, adaptation, and enhancement. J Spinal Disord. 1992 Dec;5(4):383-9; discussion 397.
  11. ↑ Jump up to:11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 McKeon PO, Hertel J, Bramble D, Davis I. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function. Br J Sports Med. 2015 Mar;49(5):290
  12. ↑ Jump up to:12.0 12.1 Hiemstra LA, Lo IK, Fowler PJ. Effect of fatigue on knee proprioception: implications for dynamic stabilization. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2001;31:598–605.
  13. ↑ Jump up to:13.0 13.1 13.2 Cullen KE, Zobeiri OA. Proprioception and the predictive sensing of active self-motion. Current Opinion in Physiology 2021; 20: 29-38.
  14.  Goodman R, Tremblay L. Using proprioception to control ongoing actions: the dominance of vision or altered proprioceptive weighing?. Exp Brain Res. 2018; 236: 1897–1910.
  15.  Lephart SM, Pincivero DM, Giraido JL, Fu FH. The role of proprioception in the management and rehabilitation of athletic injuries. The American journal of sports medicine. 1997 Jan;25(1):130-7.
  16.  Payne KA, Berg K, Latin RW. Ankle injuries and ankle strength, flexibility, and proprioception in college basketball players. Journal of Athletic Training.1997; 32(3): 221–225.
  17.  Fu SN, Hui-Chan CWY. Are there any relationships among ankle proprioception acuity, pre-landing ankle muscle responses, and landing impact in a man? Neuroscience Letters. 2007; 417(2):123–127.
  18.  Witchalls J, Blanch P, Waddington G, Adams R. Intrinsic functional deficits associated with increased risk of ankle injuries: a systematic review with meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2012; 46(7): 515–523.
  19.  Xue X, Ma T, Li Q, Song Y, Hua Y. Chronic ankle instability is associated with proprioception deficits: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sport Health Sci. 2021 Mar;10(2):182-191.
  20.  Kwok SE, Bird L. Injury Consequences. Available from [last accessed 13.05.2022]
  21.  Sulowska I, Mika A, Oleksy Ł, Stolarczyk A. The influence of plantar short foot muscle exercises on the lower extremity muscle strength and power in proximal segments of the kinematic chain in long-distance runners. BioMed research international. 2019 Jan 2;2019.
  22.  Moon DC, Kim K, Lee SK. Immediate Effect of Short-foot Exercise on Dynamic Balance of Subjects with Excessively Pronated Feet. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014 Jan;26(1):117-9.
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 Lee E, Cho J, Lee S. Short-Foot Exercise Promotes Quantitative Somatosensory Function in Ankle Instability: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Med Sci Monit. 2019 Jan 21;25:618-626.
  24. ↑ Jump up to:24.0 24.1 McKeon PO, Wikstrom EA. Sensory-Targeted Ankle Rehabilitation Strategies for Chronic Ankle Instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5):776-84.
  25. ↑ Jump up to:25.0 25.1 Feldbrugge CM, Pathoomvanh MM, Powden CJ, Hoch MC. Joint mobilization and static stretching for individuals with chronic ankle instability – A pilot study. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2019 Jan;23(1):194-201.
  26.  Motion Guidance. Lateral Ankle Sprain Mobilization with Movement. 2017. Available from: [last accessed 14/5/2022]
  27.  Massage Therapeutics. How to apply Effleurage and Petrissage massage techniques. 2021. Available from:[last accessed 14/5/2022]
  28.  Core Elements Training. Introduction to Massage of the Foot from Prone position – Level 3 Sports Massage Techniques. Available from: [last accessed 9/11/2022]
  29.  ReActive SORC. The Tricep Surae, Calf Muscle Stretch and Strengthen. 2020. Available from:[last accessed 14/5/2022]
  30.  Corbin DM, Hart JM, McKeon PO, Ingersoll CD, Hertel J. The effect of textured insoles on postural control in double and single-limb stance. J Sport Rehabil. 2007 Nov;16(4):363-72.
  31.  Steinberg N, Waddington G, Adams R, Karin J, Tirosh O. Use of a Textured Insole to Improve the Association Between Postural Balance and Ankle Discrimination in Young Male and Female Dancers. Med Probl Perform Art. 2015 Dec;30(4):217-23.
  32.  Halseth T, McChesney JW, Debeliso M, Vaughn R, Lien J. The effects of kinesio™ taping on proprioception at the ankle. J Sports Sci Med. 2004 Mar 1;3(1):1-7. PMID: 24497814; PMCID: PMC3896108.
  33.  Wilson B, Bialocerkowski A. The Effects of Kinesiotape Applied to the Lateral Aspect of the Ankle: Relevance to Ankle Sprains–A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 23;10(6):e0124214.
  34.  Federici A, Zumbo F, Lucertini F, Marini CF. Proprioceptive training and sports performance. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 2020; 15(4proc): S1160-S1168.
  35.  Donovan L, Hart JM, Saliba S, Park J, Feger MA, Herb CC, Hertel J. Effects of ankle destabilization devices and rehabilitation on gait biomechanics in chronic ankle instability patients: A randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther Sport. 2016 Sep;21:46-56.
  36. ↑ Jump up to:36.0 36.1 Tsikopoulos K, Sidiropoulos K, Kitridis D, Cain Atc SM, Metaxiotis D, Ali A. Do External Supports Improve Dynamic Balance in Patients with Chronic Ankle Instability? A Network Meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2020 Feb;478(2):359-377.
  37.  RCcedseminars. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) Test. 2018. Available from:[last accessed 14/5/2022]
  38.  MAT. Why you should be using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) with your patients. 2015. Available from:[last accessed 14/5/2022]