1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Bubra PS, Keighley G, Rateesh S, Carmody D. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: an overlooked cause of foot deformity. Journal of family medicine and primary care. 2015 Jan;4(1):26. Available from: (last accessed 13.3.2020)
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Knapp PW, Constant D. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction. May 2019 Available from: (last accessed 13.3.2020)
  3.  Abousayed MM, Tartaglione JP, Rosenbaum AJ, Dipreta JA. Classifications in Brief: Johnson and Strom Classification of Adult-acquired Flatfoot Deformity. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016 Feb; 474(2): 588–593.
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons . (Accessed 6 nov 2014)
  5.  Kohls-Gatzoulis J, Angel JC, Singh D, Haddad F, Livingstone J, Berry G. Tibialis posterior dysfunction: a common and treatable cause of adult acquired flatfoot. BMJ.2004;329:1328-1333
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 M.R. Edwards, C. Jack, S.K. Singh. Tibialis posterior dysfunction. Current Orthopaedics 2008; 22: 185 – 192
  7. ↑ Jump up to:7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Kong, A. Van der Vliet. Imaging of tibialis posterior dysfunction. The British Journal of Radiology, 2008 Oct;81 (970): 826–836
  8. ↑ Jump up to:8.0 8.1 Tome J, Nawoczenski DA, Flemister A, Houck J. Comparison of Foot Kinematics Between Subjects With Posterior Tibialis Tendon Dysfunction and Healthy Controls, Journal of Orthopaedic Sports Physical Therapy 36(12):986. (Accesed 24 nov 2006))
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction. Northwest Foot and Ankle. (Accessed 12 nov 2014)
  10.  Semple R., Murley G., Woodburn J, Turner D. Tibialis posterior in health and disease: a review of structure and function with specific reference to electromyographic studies.Journal of foot and ankle research 2009; 2: 24.
  11. ↑ Jump up to:11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Kornelia Kulig, Stephen F Reisch I. Nonsurgical Management of Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction With Orthoses and Resistive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Physical Therapy 2009;89:26-37
  12. ↑ Jump up to:12.0 12.1 12.2 Johnson KA, Strom DE. Tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1989;239:196-206
  13. ↑ Jump up to:13.0 13.1 Hintermann B, Gachter A. The first metatarsal rise sign: a simple, sensitive sign of tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction. Foot Ankle Int 1996; 17:236-41.
  14.  David B. Thordarson. Foot and ankle. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams Wilkins, 2004: p. 174-181
  15.  Trnka, H.-J. Dysfunction of the tendon of tibialis posterior. The journal of bone and joint surgery 2004; 86B:939-946
  16.  Richard M. Marks, Jason T. Long. Surgical reconstruction of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: Prospective comparison of flexor digitorum longus substitution combined with lateral column lengthening or medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy. Gait Posture, 2009;29:17-22
  17. ↑ Jump up to:17.0 17.1 O’Connor K, Baumhauer J, Houck JR. Patient factors in the selection of operative versus nonoperative treatment for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Foot. Ankle International 2010;31(3): 197-202
  18.  Alvarez RG, Marini A, Schmitt C, Saltzman CL. Stage I and II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction treated by structured nonoperative management protocol: an orthosis and exercise program. Foot Ankle Int 2006;27(1):2e8
  19.  Nielssen M, Dodson E, Shadrick D, Catazariti A, Mendicino R, Malay S. Nonoperative Care for the Treatment of Adult-acquired Flatfoot Deformity. Foot and Ankle Surgery 2011. 50:311-314
  20.  Durrant B, Chockalingam N, Hashmi F. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: a review. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011;101(2):176-86
  21. ↑ Jump up to:21.0 21.1 Blasimann A, Eichelberger P, Brülhart Y, El-Masri I, Flückiger G, Frauchiger L, Huber M, Weber M, Krause FG, Baur H. Non-surgical treatment of pain associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial. Journal of foot and ankle research. 2015 Aug 14;8(1):37.