Technology is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it promotes an increase in sedentary lifestyles across age groups and socioeconomic levels. On the other hand, the widespread adoption of fitness technologies such as smartphone apps and wearable technology offers innovative solutions Increase and promote physical activity. 
There are currently more than 6.8 billion people in the world using mobile phones. A 2013 analysis revealed that there are over 40,000 health and fitness apps currently available to the public through iTunes (e.g. Map My Walk Runkeeper My Fitness Pal) and more than half of smartphone owners report downloading such apps application. 
Example of equipment to measure and track PA:
- The pedometer counts and monitors steps during dynamic activities such as walking, jogging, and running. They can also estimate distance and caloric expenditure, but these measures are usually less accurate. The pedometer can be carried in a pocket or a close-fitting bag, but for A more accurate count would require them to be worn on a belt around the ankle or in a shoe .
- Accelerometer: Records body acceleration every minute, providing detailed information on frequency duration intensity and movement patterns. They are relatively more expensive than pedometers and are more widely used in research.
- Heart Rate Monitors: Mainly used to assess the exercise intensity of people with heart disease and trained competitive athletes. These devices can also estimate exercise energy expenditure.
- Smart fabrics and sensor technologies provide monitoring systems that can remotely record/monitor physiological responses ; these systems are fully integrated in the garment.
- Interactive video games such as Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) Wii Sports Wii Fit Sony Play Station Xavix and EyeToy games.
- Fitness trackers like Fitbit Garmin Xiaomi and Misfit. Similar devices have different prices and features. They can monitor daily steps, heart rate, exercise activity and sleep statistics. Data from these trackers can be packaged into users’ online accounts so they can monitor their personal goals and share them with their healthcare providers.
- Smartphone app allows user to track jogging/biking routes Workout data and comprehensive workout history Distance and time Control music and share performance levels via social media apps
How Technology Can Boost Physical Activity
Numerous studies provide evidence of the efficacy of fitness technology in engaging inactive populations with exercise programs. A systematic review reported positive results such as weight loss and changes in health risk behaviors in inactive individuals in several studies using mixed methods Technology-based physical activity interventions (web-based technology mobile phones and accelerometers) 
Another study  showed that pedometer users reported a 27% increase in physical activity levels. A pedometer-based walking program was also associated with significant reductions in body mass index body weight and systolic blood pressure. 
Many fitness centers and schools now offer interactive games to promote physical activity in children, teens and seniors using interactive games. Warburton and colleagues  reported that an interactive video game loop significantly increased steady-state heart rate and energy Expenditure compared to conventional bicycles at constant submaximal workload. 
Interactive play is not only for children, but is expected to promote functional independence, improve balance, prevent falls, reduce premature disability, and maintain health by increasing physical activity levels in adults and older adults (deJong 2010).  Balance Confidence Mental health and timed walking along a narrow path were improved in older adults who completed a 3-month video-dance intervention (twice-weekly, 30-minute sessions). 
Fitness techniques often utilize behavioral change techniques such as goal setting feedback rewards and social factors.  Addressing behavioral changes can increase an individual’s adherence to physical activity.
Providing feedback is critical to tracking goals and increasing activity levels. Reminder text messages and real-time alerts are examples of feedback tools used by fitness apps. Fitness trackers may also vibrate and make a sound or display a congratulatory message or a friendly face when a goal is reached achieved. Users can easily share their progress with friends on social media, which is considered a great motivational tool. 
Some smartphone apps provide professional virtual reality guidance to motivate people to increase physical activity.
Technology-based fitness tools offer a relatively inexpensive alternative to objective research tools. Also, they are user-friendly and provide users with simple and meaningful data. Fitness trackers including the wrist-worn Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra and the waist-worn Fitbit One have Acceptable reliability and validity comparable to research standard equipment in the laboratory. 
Physiotherapists and other healthcare professionals can encourage their patients to use trackers and/or smartphone apps to increase their activity levels. This blog post, written by a physical therapist, explores the potential of Pokemon Go to stimulate physical activity.
Accessibility, accuracy and compliance are major fitness technology challenges
Over time, less active users are more likely to abandon these devices and return to old habits than more active users.  Some have even suggested that more than half of fitness tracker owners ditch their devices within the first month . To promote persistence, it is encouraging to Fitness techniques often include behavioral strategies such as obstacle recognition and action planning. Such a strategy would allow users to check their schedule for the day and identify times when they could increase their workouts. Then they can develop specific plans increase their activities. These behavioral strategies can help people increase their perceived control over motor behavior and exercise self-efficacy .
Tracker placement on the body is a controversial topic, some areas are more accurate than others, and suggested placement may change with age.  Diaz and colleagues also found that they were more reliable than the waist-worn Fitbit Flex and the hip-worn Fitbit One. The researchers measured step counts and estimates of energy expenditure (EE) and showed that hip monitors were more accurate than wrist monitors. 
There are some viable options for fitness trackers for a ton of different people. For example, many companies have begun offering fitness trackers to their employees for free or at a discounted price. Fitness trackers boost productivity and reduce illness in one study The number of days  indicates a strong potential if adopted by more companies. 
Recent reports indicate that many physicians are now prescribing exercise for patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease.  If a fitness tracker is covered by health insurance, it can help doctors and patients track daily activities Work out alongside other metrics like diet, heart rate or sleep. Such a program might be able to connect doctors with patients in ways that were not possible before. 
- ↑ Gao Z, Lee JE. Emerging technology in promoting physical activity and health: challenges and opportunities. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019 Nov 1;8(11):1830.
- ↑ Jump up to:2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Sullivan AN and Lachman ME (2017)Behavior Change with Fitness Technology in Sedentary Adults: A Review of the Evidence for Increasing Physical Activity. Front. Public Health 4:289. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00289
- ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/technology-can-boost-physical-activity-promotion-nbsp
- ↑ 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values.Barbara E. Ainsworth, William L. Haskell, Stephen D. Herrmann, Nathanael Meckes, David R. Bassett, Jr, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Jennifer L. Greer, Jesse Vezina, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, Arthur S. LeonMed Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Aug; 43(8): 1575 1581. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12
- ↑ Paradiso R, Pacelli M. Textile electrodes and integrated smart textile for reliable biomonitoring. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:3274-7. doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090889.
- ↑ Hassett, L., Berg, M. Van Den, Lindley, R. I., Crotty, M., Mccluskey, A., Ploeg, H. P. Van Der, … Sherrington, C. (2016). Effect of affordable technology on physical activity levels and mobility outcomes in rehabilitation : a protocol for the Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology ( AMOUNT ) rehabilitation trial. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012074
- ↑ Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: a systematic review.Dena M. Bravata, Crystal Smith-Spangler, Vandana Sundaram, Allison L. Gienger, Nancy Lin, Robyn Lewis, Christopher D. Stave, Ingram Olkin, John R. SirardJAMA. 2007 Nov 21; 298(19): 22962304. doi: 10.1001/jama.298.19.2296
- ↑ Warburton, D. E., Charlesworth, S., Ivey, A., Nettlefold, L., & Bredin, S. S. (2010). A systematic review of the evidence for Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 39. http://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-39
- ↑ Studenski, S., Perera, S., Patel, K., Rosano, C., Faulkner, K., Inzitari, M., … Guralnik, J. (2011). Gait Speed and Survival in Older Adults. JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association, 305(1), 50–58. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1923
- ↑ Shih PC, Han K, Poole ES, Rosson MB, Carroll JM. Use and adoption challenges of wearable activity trackers. In Proceedings of the iConference, Newport Beach, CA (2015).
- ↑ Robinson SA, Lachman ME. Perceived control and behavior change: a personalized approach. In: Infurna F, Reich J, editors. Perceived Control: Theory,Research, and Practice in the First 50 Years. New York, NY: Oxford University Press (2016). p. 201–27.
- ↑ Schrack J, Zipunnikov V, Crainiceanu C. Electronic devices and applications to track physical activity. JAMA (2015) 313(20):2079–80. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3877
- ↑ Lauritzen J, Muñoz A, Luis Sevillano J, Civit A. The usefulness of activity trackers in elderly with reduced mobility: a case study. Stud Health Technol Inform (2013) 192:759–62. doi:10.3233/978-1-61499-289-9-759
- ↑ Singh AK, Farmer C, Van Den Berg MLE, Killington M, Barr CJ. Accuracy of the FitBit at walking speeds and cadences relevant to clinical rehabilitation populations. Disabil Health J (2015) 9(2):320–3. doi:10.1016/ j.dhjo.2015.10.011
- ↑ Diaz KM, Krupka DJ, Chang MJ, Peacock J, Ma Y, Goldsmith J, et al. Fitbit®: an accurate and reliable device for wireless physical activity tracking. Int J Cardiol (2015) 185:138–40. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.03.038
- ↑ Jump up to:16.0 16.1 Puig-Ribera A, McKenna J, Gilson N, Brown WJ. Change in work day step counts, wellbeing and job performance in Catalan university employees: a randomised controlled trial. Promot Educ (2008) 15(4):11–6. doi:10.1177/1025382308097693
- ↑ Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. Prescribing exercise as preventive therapy. Can Med Assoc J (2006) 174(7):961–74. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1040750