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1) A physical therapist is assessing the skin of an elderly patient who is recently referred for physical therapy. Understanding the normal age-related changes of the integumentary system, an elderly patient is at risk of the following conditions except :

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2) Brunnstrom classified the stages of motor recovery into six stages. On assessment, relative independence of the limb synergies and waning spasticity are noted on the patient’s affected side. Arm raising to a side horizontal position and bringing of hand over the head are also recorded. These findings indicate what stage of motor recovery ?

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3) Most cases of lumbar disk herniation are associated with the natural aging of the spine. Experts believe that disk herniation is mainly caused by the drying out and weakening of the intervertebral disks. The following factors increase an individual’s risk for disk herniation excep t:

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4) Formation of thrombus and its manifestations are related to an inflammatory process. When thrombus develops, inflammation occurs. The inflammatory process causes the thickening of the vein wall. Which of the following types of venous thrombosis is associated with vein inflammation caused by an invasive procedure ?

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5) Exercise is an essential part of anterior shoulder dislocation rehabilitation program as it can have a positive effect on muscular tissue and muscular strength. A physical therapist gradually initiates a group of exercises that involve constant velocity of shoulder movement with variable resistance. The resistance is given throughout the muscle action to allow maximum tension. This type of exercise is classified as :

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6) A female patient reveals that there are times when her hands usually fall asleep. On history taking, the patient says that things usually slip from her fingers, without her noticing. The numbness is usually severe at night. Carpal tunnel syndrome is considered. The physical therapist understands that this condition is caused by a damaged :

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7) When utilizing heat modalities, the physical therapist considers the different conductivity properties of each tissue type. Which of the following tissues has the highest thermal conductivity ?

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8) The shoulder is able to maintain great mobility with limited stability due to the static stabilizers, which maintain congruity, and dynamic stabilizers, which create compressive force at the glenohumeral joint. Which of the following is a static stabilizer ?

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9) Strains and sprains are among the most commonly reported musculoskeletal injuries. These injuries account for about 50% of work-related injuries. Sprains and strains are commonly interchanged, but they are two different injuries. Which of the following statements accurately describes these injuries ?

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10) A female patient complains of moderate joint pain and morning stiffness lasting longer than 30 minutes. The patient has a reactive Rheumatoid factor. The patient is diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. This musculoskeletal disorder is best described by which of the following statements ?

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11) Low back pain is frequently caused by lumbar disk disease, which is influenced by aging and degenerative cascade. What is the nomenclature specific to lumbar disk disease that involves breaking off of the disk fragment from the nucleus pulposus ?

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12) The shoulder is the most mobile joint in the body, but because of its wide range of movements, it is one of the most commonly injured. The shoulder consists of the humerus, glenoid, scapula, clavicle, acromion, and four other joints. Which of the following is the most commonly dislocated joint in the shoulder ?

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13) Cryotherapy has the main effect of cooling the tissues. Although the techniques of using ice or cold applications for treatment differ, the physiological responses to cryotherapy are consistent. The following are the physiological responses to cold therapy during the first 15 to 20 minutes of cold exposure except :

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14) A therapeutic exercise program usually consists of three steps that have to be followed sequentially to be effective. The first step of the program consists of exercises that aim to regain flexibility and range of motion. Although flexibility and range of motion exercises are commonly interchanged, there are technical differences to consider. Which of the following accurately describes flexibility ?

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15) Joints, also known as articulations, are regions where two or more bones meet. They are classified into three types: diarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, and synarthrosis. This classification is based according to their function. Which of the following joints is an amphiarthrosis ?

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16) The modalities for the application of cold and heat are used in various clinical conditions. It is essential that a physical therapist take advantage of these modalities to manage and prevent certain disorders and injuries. Which of the following indicates accurate differences between the effects of heat and those of cryotherapy ?

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17) The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that depress the humeral head against the glenoid. The rotator cuff consists of the following muscles except :

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18) A female patient complaining of low back pain, leg pain, and weakness in the leg and foot is diagnosed with lumbar disk herniation. Lumbar disk herniation is best described by which of the following statements ?

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19) Injuries heal by secondary intention, which involves large wound separations, or by primary intention, which involves smaller wound separations. Although the process of healing does not have clear-cut delineations, clinicians recognize that healing occurs in three phases: inflammation phase, proliferation phase, and remodeling phase. Which of the following occurs during the inflammation phase ?

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20) A distant runner has a transient episode of complete motor paralysis with minimal sensory involvement in the left lower extremity. The patient’s history includes a recent compartment syndrome injury, which is believed to be strongly associated with the patient’s symptoms at consult. The patient’s acute nerve injury is most likely caused by which of the following mechanisms ?

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