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1) A baseball player with acute medial epicondylitis is referred for physical therapy. The patient record includes a history of elbow pain during sleep. Which of the following orthoses is the most recommended for the patient ?

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2) Orthoses are usually classified into two types: static and dynamic. The classification is mainly based on the amount of joint movement that each orthosis allows. Which of the following is not correct about static orthoses ?

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3) Because of its ability to treat or relieve pain efficiently with minimal side effects, a variety of newer transcutaneous electrical stimulation modalities have emerged. Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or PENS is one of these. Which of the following accurately describes this modality ?

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4) An infant is diagnosed with correctible talipes equinovarus involving the right foot. The physical therapist expects the following corrective interventions for the patient except :

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5) A patient sustained full-thickness in the left anterior arm, including the anterior and posterior axillary regions. An orthosis is ordered to the patient to be worn before and after skin grafting. Which of the following orthoses is the most appropriate for the patient ?

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6) A male elderly who had a recent total knee replacement is ordered an assistive device that aims to help him with his balance and walking. Which of the following ambulatory assistive devices can give the patient the most stability ?

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7) Therapeutic methods of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation application can use one of the three options of standard settings. Which of the following standard settings is the most appropriate for conventional TENS ?

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8) Proper crutch fitting is essential as it facilitates proper healing, promotes stability when walking, and prevents complications and injuries. The following actions ensure proper crutch fitting except :

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9) The modalities of deep heating convert energy into heat as it goes through body tissues. Electromagnetic radiation, highfrequency sound and high-frequency currents are some of the energy sources used. Which of the following heating modalities is considered as the best method for large-area deep heating ?

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10) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation is one of the most commonly used forms of electroanalgesia. Which of the following therapeutic methods of TENS is the most recommended for acupuncture-like settings ?

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11) A patient is ordered to ambulate with assistance using a pair of crutches. The physical therapist instructs the patient to move the right crutch ahead, and then move the left foot forward at about the level of the right crutch. The next instruction is to move the left crutch forward. The right foot is moved forward last. Which of the following is accurately derived from the instructed gait sequence ?

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12) Superficial heating modalities are usually used to increase cutaneous blood flow and to provide cooling reactions as they remove the heat that is applied externally. A physical therapist uses a superficial heating modality that involves conversion of one energy form into another. Which of the following heating modalities is most likely used ?

I. Fluidotherapy

II. Paraffin bath

III. Heat lamp

IV. Radiant light

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13) A physical therapist is observing a patient who is walking with crutches. The patient advances both crutches forward, and then swings both legs past the crutches at the same time. Based on the sequence, the patient is demonstrating which crutch gait ?

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14) Upper-limb orthoses are classified according to their function. Which of the following upper-limb orthoses augments prehension with more proximal joint movements ?

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15) A 30-year-old female patient with chronic lower back pain secondary to lumbar spinal stenosis is ordered to be placed on lumbar traction. Which of the following actions by the physical therapist demonstrates the correct technique of applying this type of traction ?

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16) Which of the following is considered as the most effective orthosis for use in controlling rotation and lateral bending at C1-C3 ?

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17) Superficial heating modalities use the subcutaneous fat tissue to act as a thermal insulator and inhibit the heat transfer. Heat transfer is classified into three types: conduction, convection, and conversion. If a physical therapist decides to use a modality that uses the convection mechanism of heat exchange, which of the following is most likely considered ?

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18) The healing process is subtly or significantly influenced by external factors, which include various treatment modalities. The application of electrical stimulation has the following effects during rehabilitation except :

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19) A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is assessed by a physical therapist for an exercise program. Pulmonary assessment is conducted through physical examination and pulmonary function tests. A patient with chronic obstructive disease is expected to have which of the following findings ?

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20) A mother asks a physical therapist when she can start toilet training her 18-month-old child. The therapist informs the mother that each child develops at his or her own phase, so a definite answer is not possible. In spite of this, there are signs indicating readiness for toilet training. The following suggest readiness for toilet training except :

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