1.  Logterman SL, Wydra FB, Frank RM. Posterior Cruciate Ligament: Anatomy and Biomechanics. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2018;11(3):510-4.
  2.  Lynch TB, Chahla J, Nuelle CW. Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament. J Knee Surg. 2021 Apr;34(5):499-508.
  3.  Seon, J. Anatomy and function of the posterior cruciate ligament . In: Kim, JG, editor. Knee Arthroscopy. Springer, Singapore, 2021. p149-52.
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 Vaquero-Picado A, Rodríguez-Merchán EC. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament tears: an update of management. EFORT Open Rev. 2017;2(4):89-96.
  5.  Ng JWG, Ali FM. Isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Journal of Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery. 2021;8(4):319-25.
  6.  Pache S, Aman ZS, Kennedy M, et al. Posterior Cruciate Ligament: Current Concepts Review. Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2018;6(1):8-18.
  7.  Marom N, Ruzbarsky JJ, Boyle C, Marx RG. Complications in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries and Related Surgery. Sports Med Arthrosc Rev. 2020;28(1):30-3.
  8.  Lee BK, Nam SW. Rupture of Posterior Cruciate Ligament: Diagnosis and Treatment Principles. Knee Surgery and Related Research 2011 Sep;23(3):135-141.
  9.  Lamb S, Koch S, Nye NS. Posterior cruciate ligament injury. In: Coleman N., editor. Common pediatric knee injuries. Springer, Cham, 2021. p133-41.
  10.  Malone AA, Dowd GSE, Saifuddin A. Injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner of the knee. Injury 2006;37(6):485-501.
  11.  Posterior Drawer test for PCL. Available from:
  12.  Posterior Sag Test. Available from:
  13.  Agolley D, Gabr A, Benjamin-Laing H, Haddad FS. Successful return to sports in athletes following non-operative management of acute isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries: medium-term follow-up. Bone Joint J. 2017;99-B(6):774–778. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.99B6.37953
  14.  Strobel MJ, Weiler A, Schulz MS, Russe K, Eichhorn HJ. Arthroscopic evaluation of articular cartilage lesions in posterior cruciate ligament—deficient knees. Arthroscopy: the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery. 2003 Mar 1;19(3):262-8.
  15.  Van de Velde SK, Bingham JT, Gill TJ, Li G. Analysis of tibiofemoral cartilage deformation in the posterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume.. 2009 Jan 1;91(1):167.
  16. ↑ Jump up to:16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 O’Brien, L. Non-operative Treatment of PCL Injury Course, Plus2019
  17.  Jacobi M, Reischl N, Wahl P, Gautier E, Jakob RP. Acute isolated injury of the posterior cruciate ligament treated by a dynamic anterior drawer brace: a preliminary report. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. 2010 Oct;92(10):1381-4.
  18.  Markolf KL, O’Neill G, Jackson SR, McAllister DR. Effects of applied quadriceps and hamstrings muscle loads on forces in the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. The American journal of sports medicine. 2004 Jul;32(5):1144-9.
  19.  medi GmbH & Co. KG. M.4s® PCL dynamic – The new standard for PCL therapy. Available from:
  20.  Y Balance Test Explained . Available from:
  21.  Exercises: Single Leg Hop Test . Available from: