1.  Cardy TJ, De Decker S, Kenny PJ, Volk HA. Clinical reasoning in canine spinal disease: what combination of clinical information is useful? Vet Rec. 2015;177(7):171.
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 Van der Walt A. Managing Disorders of the Canine Spine Course. Plus , 2021.
  3.  Takahashi F, Hakozaki T, Kouno S, Suzuki S, Sato A, Kanno N et al. Atlantooccipital overlapping and its effect on outcomes after ventral fixation in dogs with atlantoaxial instability. The Journal of veterinary medical science. 2018;80(3):526–31.
  4.  Planchamp B, Bluteau J, Stoffel MH, Precht C, Schmidli F, Forterre F. Morphometric and functional study of the canine atlantoaxial joint. Research in Veterinary Science. 2020;128:76-85.
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Slanina MC. Atlantoaxial Instability. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2016;46(2):265-75.
  6.  Southeast Veterinary Neurology. What is Atlantoaxial Instability in Dogs? || Southeast Veterinary Neurology. Available from: [last accessed 1/3/21]
  7.  MercolaHealthyPets. Dr. Becker Discusses Atlantoaxial Instability in Dogs. Available from: [last accessed 1/3/21]
  8.  Havig ME, Cornell KK, Hawthorne JC, McDonnell JJ, Selcer BA. Evaluation of nonsurgical treatment of atlantoaxial subluxation in dogs: 19 cases (1992-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227(2):257-62.
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 9.2 Reints Bok TE, Willemsen K, van Rijen MHP, Grinwis GCM, Tryfonidou MA, Meij BP. Instrumented cervical fusion in nine dogs with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy. Vet Surg. 2019;48(7):1287-98.
  10.  Plessas J. Treating neck pain in dogs – neurological five-step approach [Internet]. Vet Times. 2016 [cited 1 March 2021]. Available from:
  11.  Shekhar P, Singh GD, Kumar S, Singh AK, Choudhury S, Shukla A. Wobbler’s syndrome in labrador and rotweiller pups: an emerging concern in canines: a review. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 2018;7(1):361-4.
  12.  MercolaHealthyPets. Wobbler’s Syndrome in Dogs. Available from: [last accessed 1/3/2021]
  13.  De Decker S, Bhatti SF, Duchateau L, Martlé VA, Van Soens I, Van Meervenne SA, Saunders JH, Van Ham LM. Clinical evaluation of 51 dogs treated conservatively for disc-associated wobbler syndrome. J Small Anim Pract. 2009;50(3):136-42.
  14.  Holder AL, Price JA, Adams JP, Volk HA, Catchpole B. A retrospective study of the prevalence of the canine degenerative myelopathy associated superoxide dismutase 1 mutation (SOD1:c.118G > A) in a referral population of German Shepherd dogs from the UK. Canine Genet Epidemiol. 2014;1:10.
  15. ↑ Jump up to:15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 Coates JR, Wininger FA. Canine degenerative myelopathy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010;40(5):929-50.
  16. ↑ Jump up to:16.0 16.1 16.2 Kathmann I, Cizinauskas S, Doherr MG, Steffen F, Jaggy A. Daily controlled physiotherapy increases survival time in dogs with suspected degenerative myelopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20(4):927-32.
  17.  Nardone R, Höller Y, Taylor AC, Lochner P, Tezzon F, Golaszewski S. Canine degenerative myelopathy: a model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Zoology. 2016;119(1):64-73.
  18.  Heron Lakes Animal Hospital. Degenerative Myelopathy in Dogs. Available from: [last accessed 4/3/2021]
  19.  AKC Canine Health Foundation. How to Care for a Dog with Degenerative Myelopathy. Available from: [last accessed 4/3/2021]
  20.  Neeves J, Granger N. An update on degenerative myelopathy in dogs. Companion Animal (2053-0889) [Internet]. 2015 Jul [cited 4 March 2021];20(7):408–12.
  21. ↑ Jump up to:21.0 21.1 21.2 Widmer WR, Thrall DE. Canine and feline vertebrae. In: Thrall DE. Veterinary diagnostic radiology. 7th Edition. St Louis: Elsevier, 2018. p249-70.
  22. ↑ Jump up to:22.0 22.1 22.2 Meij BP. Spondylosis and spinal abnormalities: when are they relevant? [Internet]. 2012 [cited 5 March 2021]. Available from:
  23.  Kranenburg HC, Westerveld LA, Verlaan JJ, et al. The dog as an animal model for DISH?. Eur Spine J. 2010;19(8):1325-1329.