1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 Saragiotto BT, Maher CG, Yamato TP, Costa LO, Costa LC, Ostelo RW, Macedo LG. Motor control exercise for chronic non‐specific low‐back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016(1). Available: (accessed 3.1.2022)
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  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 Richardson C, Jull G, Hodges P. Therapeutic exercise for lumbopelvic stabilisation: a motor control approach for the treatment and prevention of low back pain. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2004
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  6.  Barker P, Briggs C. Attachments of the posterior layer of lumbar fascia. Spine. 1999; 24(17): 1757-64
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  13. ↑ Jump up to:13.0 13.1 Hodges P, Kaigle, HA, Holm, S, Ekström, L, Cresswell, A, Hansson, T, Thorstensson, A. . Intervertebral stiffness of the spine is increased by evoked contraction of transversus abdominis and the diaphragm: in vivo porcine studies. Spine. 2003; 28(23): 2594-601
  14.  Cresswell A, Oddsson, L, Thorstensson, A. The influence of sudden perturbations on trunk muscle activity and intra-abdominal pressure while standing. Exp Brain res. 1994; 98: 336-41
  15.  Hodges P, Richardson C. Feedforward contraction of transversus abdominis is not influenced by the direction of arm movement. Exp Brain Res. 1997; 114: 362-70
  16.  Hodges P, Richardson C. Contraction of the abdominal muscles associated with movement of the lower limb. Physical Therapy. 1997; 77(2): 132-44
  17.  Cresswell A, Grundstrom H, Thorstensson A. Observations on intra-abdominal pressure and patterns of abdominal intra-muscular activity in man. Acta Physiology Scandinavia. 1992
  18.  Hodges P, Cresswell, A & Thorstensson, A. Preparatory trunk motion accompanies rapid upper limb movement. Exp Brain Res. 1999; 124: 69-79
  19. ↑ Jump up to:19.0 19.1 Hodges P, Richardson C. Inefficient muscular stabilisation of the lumbar spine associated with low back pain: a motor control evaluation of transversus abdominis. Spine. 1996; 21: 2640-50
  20. ↑ Jump up to:20.0 20.1 Hodges P, Richardson, CA. Delayed postural contraction of transversus abdominis in low back pain associated with movement of the lower limb. Journal of Spinal Disorders. 1998; 11(1): 46-56
  21. ↑ Jump up to:21.0 21.1 Ferreira P, Ferreira M, Hodges P. Changes in recruitment of the abdominal muscles in people with low back pain: ultrasound measurement of muscle activity. Spine. 2004; 29(22): 2560-6
  22. ↑ Jump up to:22.0 22.1 MacDonald D, Moseley G, Hodges P. Why do some patients keep hurting their back? Evidence of ongoing back muscle dysfunction during remission from recurrent back pain. Pain. 2009; 142(3): 183-8
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 Hides J, Lambrecht G, Richardson C, Stanton W, Armbrecht G, Pruett C, et al. The effects of rehabilitation on the muscles of the trunk following prolonged bed rest. European Spine Journal. 2010
  24.  Dickx N, Cagnie B, Parlevliet T, Lavens A, Danneels L. The effect of unilateral muscle pain on recruitment of the lumbar multifidus during automatic contraction. An experimental pain study. Manual Therapy. 2010; 15(4): 364-9
  25.  Dankaerts W, O’Sullivan P, Burnett A, Straker L. Altered patterns of superficial trunk muscle activation during sitting in nonspecific chronic low back pain patients: importance of subclassification. Spine. 2006; 31(17): 2017-23
  26.  Tsao H, Galea M, Hodges P. Reorganization of the motor cortex is associated with postural control deficits in recurrent low back pain. Brain. 2008; 131(8): 2161-71
  27.  Hodges P, Moseley G. Pain and motor control of the lumbopelvic region: effect and possible mechanisms. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2003; 13(4): 361-70
  28.  Richardson C, Hides J, Wilson S, Stanton W, Snijders C. Lumbo-pelvic joint protection against antigravity forces: motor control and segmental stiffness assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. J Gravit Physiol. 2004; 11(2): P119-22.
  29. ↑ Jump up to:29.0 29.1 29.2 Tsao H, Hodges P. Immediate changes in feedforward postural adjustments following voluntary motor training. Experimental Brain Research. 2007; 181(4): 537-46
  30.  Tsao H, Hodges P. Persistence of improvements in postural strategies following motor control training in people with recurrent low back pain. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2008; 18(4): 559-67
  31. ↑ Jump up to:31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 Tsao H, Druitt T, Schollum T, Hodges P. Motor training of the lumbar paraspinal muscles induces immediate changes in motor coordination in patients with recurrent low back pain. The Journal of Pain. 2010; 11(11): 1120-8
  32.  Vasseljen O, Fladmark A. Abdominal muscle contraction thickness and function after specific and general exercises: a randomized controlled trial in chronic low back pain patients. Man Ther. 2010; 15(5): 482-9
  33.  Ferreira P, Ferreira M, Maher C, Refshauge K, Herbert R, Hodges P. Changes in recruitment of transversus abdominis correlate with disability in people with chronic low back pain. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009; 44(16): 1166-72
  34.  Hall L, Tsao H, MacDonald D, Coppieters M, Hodges P. Immediate effects of co-contraction training on motor control of the trunk muscles in people with recurrent low back pain. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology: official journal of the International Society of Electrophysiological Kinesiology. 2009; 19(5): 763
  35.  Ferreira P, Ferreira M, Maher C, Herbert R, Refshauge K. Specific stabilisation exercise for spinal and pelvic pain: a systematic review. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 2006; 52(2): 79-88
  36. ↑ Jump up to:36.0 36.1 36.2 Standaert C, Weinstein S, Rumpeltes J. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with lumbar stabilization exercises. The Spine Journal. 2008; 8(1): 114-20
  37.  Rackwitz B, de Bie R, Limm H, von Garnier K, Ewert T, Stucki G. Segmental stabilizing exercises and low back pain. What is the evidence? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Rehabil. 2006; 20(7): 553-67
  38.  Macedo L, Maher C, Latimer J, McAuley J. Motor control exercise for persistent, nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review. Physical Therapy. 2009; 89(1): 9-25
  39. ↑ Jump up to:39.0 39.1 Hodges P. Transversus abdominis: a different view of the elephant. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008; 42(12): 941-4
  40.  Allison G, Morris S. Transversus abdominis and core stability: has the pendulum swung? British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008; 42(11): 630-1
  41.  McGill SM. Low back disorders: Evidence-based prevention and rehabilitation 2nd ed. Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2008
  42. ↑ Jump up to:42.0 42.1 42.2 O’Sullivan P. Lumbar segmental ‘instability’: clinical presentation and specific stabilizing exercise management. Manual Therapy. 2000; 5(1): 2-12
  43.  Ford J, Hahne A, Chan A, Surkitt L. A classification and treatment protocol for low back disorders. Part 3: functional restoration for intervertebral disc related disorders. Physical Therapy Reviews. 2012; 17(1): 55-75
  44.  Henry S, Westervelt K. The use of real-time ultrasound feedback in teaching abdominal hollowing exercises to healthy subjects. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2005; 35(6): 338-45
  45.  Hides J, Stanton W, Freke M, Wilson S, McMahon S, Richardson C. MRI study of the size, symmetry and function of the trunk muscles among elite cricketers with and without low back pain. Br J Sports Med. 2008; 42(10): 809-13
  46.  Hahne AJ, Ford JJ, Surkitt LD, Richards MC, Chan AY, Thompson SL, et al. Specific treatment of problems of the spine (STOPS): design of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy versus advice for people with subacute low back disorders. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2011; 12: 104
  47. ↑ Jump up to:47.0 47.1 Hides J, Belavy D, Cassar L, Williams M, Wilson S, Richardson C. Altered response of the anterolateral abdominal muscles to simulated weight-bearing in subjects with low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2009; 18(3): 410-8
  48.  Sapsford R. Contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during abdominal maneuvers. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2001; 82(8): 1081-8
  49.  Neumann P, Gill V. Pelvic floor and abdominal muscle interaction: EMG activity and intra- abdominal pressure. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2002; 13: 125-32
  50.  Dankaerts W, O’Sullivan P. The validity of O’Sullivan’s classification system (CS) for a sub-group of NS-CLBP with motor control impairment (MCI): Overview of a series of studies and review of the literature. Man Ther. 2010
  51.  Richardson C, Jull G, Hodges P. Therapeutic exercise for lumbopelvic stabilisation: a motor control approach for the treatment and prevention of low back pain. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2004
  52.  O’Sullivan P, Dankaerts W, Burnett A, Farrell G, Jefford E, Naylor C, et al. Effect of different upright sitting postures on spinal-pelvic curvature and trunk muscle activation in a pain-free population. Spine. 2006; 31(19): E707-12
  53. ↑ Jump up to:53.0 53.1 53.2 Hides J, Scott Q, Jull G, Richardson C. A clinical palpation test to check the activation of the deep stabilizing muscles of the lumbar spine. International SportMed Journal. 2000; 1(4)
  54.  Hides J, Stanton W, Wilson S, Freke M, McMahon S, Sims K. Retraining motor control of abdominal muscles among elite cricketers with low back pain. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2010; 20(6): 834-42
  55.  Hides J, Stanton W, Wilson S, Freke M, McMahon S, Sims K. Retraining motor control of abdominal muscles among elite cricketers with low back pain. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2010; 20(6): 834-42
  56.  Critchley D. Instructing pelvic floor contraction facilitates transversus abdominis thickness increase during low-abdominal hollowing. Physiother Res Int. 2002; 7(2): 65-75