1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 Nicholson PJ. Occupational Health: The Value Proposition. The Society of Occupational Medicine. London; 2017. Available from
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 Roberts, K. An Introduction to Occupational Health. Plus. 2020.
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Department of Work and Pensions. Department of Health and Social Care. Health in the Workplace- Patterns of Sickness Absence, Employer Support and Employment Retention. 2019. Available from [Accessed 13 April 2020].
  4.  Black C, Frost D. Health at work – an independent review of sickness absence. London: Department of Work and Pensions; 2011. Available from: [Accessed 13 April 2020]
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Physiotherapy Works: Occupational Health. United Kingdom; 2010. Available from (accessed 13 April 2020).
  6.  Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD, Mortensen OS, Andersen LL. Joint association of multimorbidity and work ability with risk of long-term sickness absence: a prospective cohort study with register follow-up. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017;43(2):146-54.
  7.  Andersen LL, Thorsen SV, Flyvholm MA, Holtermann A. Long-term sickness absence from combined factors related to physical work demands: prospective cohort study. Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(5):824-9.
  8.  Virkkunen T, Husu P, Tokola K, Parkkari J, Kankaanpää M. Depressive symptoms are associated with decreased quality of life and work ability in currently working health care workers with recurrent low back pain. J Occup Environ Med. 2022 Sep 1;64(9):782-787.
  9.  Prieto-González P, Šutvajová M, Lesňáková A, Bartík P, Buľáková K, Friediger T. Back pain prevalence, intensity, and associated risk factors among female teachers in Slovakia during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Healthcare (Basel). 2021 Jul 7;9(7):860.
  10.  Moggioli F, Pérez-Fernández T, Liébana S, Corredor EB, Armijo-Olivo S, Fernandez-Carnero J, et al. Analysis of sensorimotor control in people with and without neck pain using inertial sensor technology: study protocol for a 1-year longitudinal prospective observational study. BMJ Open. 2022 Feb 15;12(2):e058190.
  11.  Bohman T, Holm LW, Lekander M, Hallqvist J, Skillgate E. Influence of work ability and smoking on the prognosis of long-duration activity-limiting neck/back pain: a cohort study of a Swedish working population. BMJ Open. 2022 Apr 12;12(4):e054512.
  12.  Ackerman IN, Fotis K, Pearson L, Schoch P, Broughton N, Brennan-Olsen SL, et al. Impaired health-related quality of life, psychological distress, and productivity loss in younger people with persistent shoulder pain: a cross-sectional analysis. Disabil Rehabil. 2022 Jul;44(15):3785-94.
  13.  Wade DT, Halligan PW. The biopsychosocial model of illness: a model whose time has come. Clin Rehabil. 2017 Aug;31(8):995-1004.
  14. ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 Post Sennehed C, Gard G, Holmberg S, Stigmar K, Forsbrand M, Grahn B. “Blue flags”, development of a short clinical questionnaire on work-related psychosocial risk factors – a validation study in primary care. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 ;18(1):318.
  15.  Winkelmann C, Schreiber T. Using ’White Flags’ to categorize socio-cultural aspects in chronic pain. European Journal of Public Health. 2019;29:10.