Technology is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it promotes an increase in sedentary lifestyles across age groups and socioeconomic levels. On the other hand, the widespread adoption of fitness technologies such as smartphone apps and wearable technology offers innovative solutions Promotes physical activity. 
There are currently more than 6.8 billion people in the world using mobile phones. A 2013 analysis revealed that over 40,000 health and fitness apps are currently available to the public via iTunes (e.g. Map My Walk Runkeeper My Fitness Pal), with more than half of smartphone owners reporting Download such applications. 
Example of equipment to measure and track PA:
- Pedometers count and monitor steps during dynamic activities such as walking, jogging, and running. They can also estimate distance and caloric expenditure, but these measures are usually less accurate. The pedometer can be carried in a pocket or body bag, but for more accurate counting They will be asked to be worn on a belt around the ankle or in a shoe .
- Accelerometer: Records body acceleration every minute, providing detailed information on frequency duration intensity and movement patterns. They are relatively more expensive than pedometers and are more widely used in research.
- Heart Rate Monitor: Mainly used to assess the exercise intensity of cardiac patients and well-trained competitive athletes. These devices can also estimate exercise energy expenditure.
- Smart fabrics and sensor technologies provide monitoring systems that can remotely record/monitor physiological responses ; these systems are fully integrated in the garment.
- Interactive video games such as Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) Wii Sports Wii Fit Sony Play Station Xavix and EyeToy games.
- Fitness trackers like Fitbit Garmin Xiaomi and Misfit. Similar devices have different prices and features. They can monitor daily steps, heart rate, exercise activity and sleep statistics. Data from these trackers can be packaged into users’ online accounts so they can monitor their personal goals and share it with their healthcare provider.
- Smartphone app allows user to track jogging/biking routes Workout data and comprehensive workout history Distance and time Control music and share performance levels via social media apps
How Technology Can Boost Physical Activity
Numerous studies provide evidence of the efficacy of fitness technology in engaging inactive populations with exercise programs. A systematic review reported positive results such as weight loss and changes in health risk behaviors in inactive individuals in several studies using mixed methods Technology-based physical activity interventions (web-based technology cell phones and accelerometers) 
Another study  showed that pedometer users reported a 27% increase in physical activity levels. A pedometer-based walking program was also associated with significant reductions in body mass index body weight and systolic blood pressure. 
Many fitness centers and schools now offer interactive games to promote physical activity in children, teens and seniors using interactive games. Warburton and colleagues  reported that interactive video game loops significantly increased steady-state heart rate and energy expenditure compared with video games Compared to conventional bikes at constant sub-maximal effort. 
Interactive play is not only for children, but is expected to promote functional independence, improve balance, prevent falls, reduce premature disability, and maintain health by increasing physical activity levels in adults and older adults (deJong 2010).  Balancing Confidence Mental Health with Timing The ability to walk on narrow roads improved in older adults who completed a 3-month video dance intervention (twice a week, 30 minutes each). 
Fitness techniques often utilize behavioral change techniques such as goal setting feedback rewards and social factors.  Addressing behavior change can improve an individual’s adherence to physical activity.
Providing feedback is critical to tracking goals and increasing activity levels. Reminder text messages and real-time alerts are examples of feedback tools used by fitness apps. Fitness trackers may also vibrate and make a sound or display a congratulatory message or a friendly face when a goal is reached Reached. Users can easily share their progress with friends on social media, which is considered a great motivational tool. 
Some smartphone apps provide professional virtual reality guidance to motivate people to increase physical activity.
Technology-based fitness tools offer a relatively inexpensive alternative to objective research tools. Also, they are user-friendly and provide users with simple and meaningful data. Fitness trackers, including the wrist-worn Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra and the waist-worn Fitbit One, have an acceptable Reliability and effectiveness are comparable to laboratory research standard equipment. 
Physiotherapists and other healthcare professionals can encourage their patients to use trackers and/or smartphone apps to increase their activity levels. This blog post, written by a physical therapist, explores the potential of Pokemon Go to stimulate physical activity.
Accessibility accuracy and compliance are major fitness tech challenges
Less active users are more likely than more active users to abandon these devices and revert to old habits over time.  Some have even suggested that more than half of fitness tracker owners ditch their devices within the first month . To promote persistence, encourage fitness Techniques often include behavioral strategies such as obstacle recognition and action planning. Such a strategy would allow users to check their schedule for the day and identify times when they could increase their workouts. They can then develop specific plans to increase their activity. These Behavioral strategies can help people increase their perceived control over motor behavior and exercise self-efficacy .
Tracker placement on the body is a controversial topic, some areas are more accurate than others, and suggested placement may change with age.  Diaz and colleagues also found that they were more reliable than the waist-worn Fitbit Flex and the hip-worn Fitbit One. The researchers measured Estimation of steps and energy expenditure (EE) and showed that hip monitors are more accurate than wrist monitors. 
There are a few viable options for fitness trackers for a ton of different people. For example, many companies have begun offering fitness trackers to their employees for free or at a discounted price. In one study, fitness trackers increased productivity and reduced sickness days  If adopted by more companies, it shows strong potential. 
Recent reports indicate that many physicians are now prescribing exercise for patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease.  If a fitness tracker is covered by health insurance, it can help doctors and patients track daily activities Other metrics like diet heart rate or sleep. Such a program might be able to connect doctors with patients in ways that were not possible before. 
- ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 Nicholson PJ. Occupational Health: The Value Proposition. The Society of Occupational Medicine. London; 2017. Available from https://www.som.org.uk/sites/som.org.uk/files/Occupational_health_the_value_proposition_0.pdf
- ↑ Jump up to:2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 Roberts, K. An Introduction to Occupational Health. Plus. 2020.
- ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Department of Work and Pensions. Department of Health and Social Care. Health in the Workplace- Patterns of Sickness Absence, Employer Support and Employment Retention. 2019. Available from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/817124/health-in-the-workplace-statistics.pdf. [Accessed 13 April 2020].
- ↑ Black C, Frost D. Health at work – an independent review of sickness absence. London: Department of Work and Pensions; 2011. Available from: http://www.dwp.gov.uk/policy/welfare-reform/sickness-absence-review [Accessed 13 April 2020]
- ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Physiotherapy Works: Occupational Health. United Kingdom; 2010. Available from https://www.csp.org.uk/publications/physiotherapy-works-occupational-health (accessed 13 April 2020).
- ↑ Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD, Mortensen OS, Andersen LL. Joint association of multimorbidity and work ability with risk of long-term sickness absence: a prospective cohort study with register follow-up. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017;43(2):146-54.
- ↑ Andersen LL, Thorsen SV, Flyvholm MA, Holtermann A. Long-term sickness absence from combined factors related to physical work demands: prospective cohort study. Eur J Public Health. 2018;28(5):824-9.
- ↑ Virkkunen T, Husu P, Tokola K, Parkkari J, Kankaanpää M. Depressive symptoms are associated with decreased quality of life and work ability in currently working health care workers with recurrent low back pain. J Occup Environ Med. 2022 Sep 1;64(9):782-787.
- ↑ Prieto-González P, Šutvajová M, Lesňáková A, Bartík P, Buľáková K, Friediger T. Back pain prevalence, intensity, and associated risk factors among female teachers in Slovakia during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Healthcare (Basel). 2021 Jul 7;9(7):860.
- ↑ Moggioli F, Pérez-Fernández T, Liébana S, Corredor EB, Armijo-Olivo S, Fernandez-Carnero J, et al. Analysis of sensorimotor control in people with and without neck pain using inertial sensor technology: study protocol for a 1-year longitudinal prospective observational study. BMJ Open. 2022 Feb 15;12(2):e058190.
- ↑ Bohman T, Holm LW, Lekander M, Hallqvist J, Skillgate E. Influence of work ability and smoking on the prognosis of long-duration activity-limiting neck/back pain: a cohort study of a Swedish working population. BMJ Open. 2022 Apr 12;12(4):e054512.
- ↑ Ackerman IN, Fotis K, Pearson L, Schoch P, Broughton N, Brennan-Olsen SL, et al. Impaired health-related quality of life, psychological distress, and productivity loss in younger people with persistent shoulder pain: a cross-sectional analysis. Disabil Rehabil. 2022 Jul;44(15):3785-94.
- ↑ Wade DT, Halligan PW. The biopsychosocial model of illness: a model whose time has come. Clin Rehabil. 2017 Aug;31(8):995-1004.
- ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 Post Sennehed C, Gard G, Holmberg S, Stigmar K, Forsbrand M, Grahn B. “Blue flags”, development of a short clinical questionnaire on work-related psychosocial risk factors – a validation study in primary care. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 ;18(1):318.
- ↑ Winkelmann C, Schreiber T. Using ’White Flags’ to categorize socio-cultural aspects in chronic pain. European Journal of Public Health. 2019;29:10.