1.  Buchbinder, R., Van Tulder, M., Öberg, B., Costa, L. M., Woolf, A., Schoene, M., Croft, P., Buchbinder, R., Hartvigsen, J., Cherkin, D., Foster, N. E., Maher, C. G., Underwood, M., Van Tulder, M., Anema, J. R., Chou, R., Cohen, S. P., Menezes Costa, L., Croft, P., … Woolf, A. (2018). Low back pain: A call for action. The Lancet, 391(10137), 2384-2388.
  2.  Meroni, R., Piscitelli, D., Ravasio, C., Vanti, C., Bertozzi, L., De Vito, G., Perin, C., Guccione, A. A., Cerri, C. G., & Pillastrini, P. (2019). Evidence for managing chronic low back pain in primary care: A review of recommendations from high-quality clinical practice guidelines. Disability and Rehabilitation, 43(7), 1029-1043.
  3.  Pillastrini, P., Gardenghi, I., Bonetti, F., Capra, F., Guccione, A., Mugnai, R., & Violante, F. S. (2012). An updated overview of clinical guidelines for chronic low back pain management in primary care. Joint Bone Spine, 79(2), 176-185.
  4.  Curatolo, M., & Bogduk, N. (2001). Pharmacologic pain treatment of musculoskeletal disorders: Current perspectives and future prospects. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 17(1), 25-32.
  5.  Smith, J. S., Klineberg, E., Lafage, V., Shaffrey, C. I., Schwab, F., Lafage, R., Hostin, R., Mundis, G. M., Errico, T. J., Kim, H. J., Protopsaltis, T. S., Hamilton, D. K., Scheer, J. K., Soroceanu, A., Kelly, M. P., Line, B., Gupta, M., Deviren, V., Hart, R., … _, _. (2016). Prospective multicenter assessment of perioperative and minimum 2-year postoperative complication rates associated with adult spinal deformity surgery. Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, 25(1), 1-14.
  6.  Romero-Morales, C., Bravo-Aguilar, M., Abuín-Porras, V., Almazán-Polo, J., Calvo-Lobo, C., Martínez-Jiménez, E. M., López-López, D., & Navarro-Flores, E. (2021). Current advances and novel research on minimal invasive techniques for musculoskeletal disorders. Disease-a-Month, 67(10), 101210.
  7.  Manchikanti, L., Singh, V., Kaye, A. D., & Hirsch, J. A. (2020). Lessons for better pain management in the future: Learning from the past. Pain and Therapy, 9(2), 373-391.
  8.  Jadon, D. A. (2017). Non-operative management of Discogenic back pain by Intradiscal interventions: An evidence based review. SDRP Journal of Anesthesia & Surgery, 1(1).
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Schimmel, J. J., De Kleuver, M., Horsting, P. P., Spruit, M., Jacobs, W. C., & Van Limbeek, J. (2009). No effect of traction in patients with low back pain: A single centre, single blind, randomized controlled trial of Intervertebral differential dynamics therapy®. European Spine Journal, 18(12), 1843-1850.
  10.  Gay, R. E., & Brault, J. S. (2008). Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with traction therapy. The Spine Journal, 8(1), 234-242.
  11.  Van Tulder, M. W., Koes, B. W., & Bouter, L. M. (1997). Conservative treatment of acute and chronic Nonspecific low back pain. Spine, 22(18), 2128-2156.
  12. ↑ Jump up to:12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Henry, L. (2017). Non-surgical spinal decompression an effective physiotherapy modality for neck and back pain. Journal of Novel Physiotherapy and Physical Rehabilitation, 4(3), 062-065.
  13.  Shealy, C. N., & Borgmeyer, V. (2003). Decompression, reduction, and stabilization of the lumbar spine: a cost-effective treatment for lumbosacral pain. Technology Review, 6(5).
  14. ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 Choi, J., Lee, S., & Hwangbo, G. (2015). Influences of spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy on the pain, disability, and straight leg raising of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27(2), 481-483.
  15.  Ramos, G., & Martin, W. (1994). Effects of vertebral axial decompression on intradiscal pressure. Journal of Neurosurgery, 81(3), 350-353.
  16. ↑ Jump up to:16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Patnaik, G. (2018) Role of IDD therapy in the back and neck pain. Journal of Medical  Student Research 1:002
  17. ↑ Jump up to:17.0 17.1 17.2 Gay R (2013) All About Spinal Decompression Therapy. SPINE-health. Available from: (accessed 1 Sep 2022).
  18. ↑ Jump up to:18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 McClure, D. & Farris, B. (2006). Intervertebral Differential Dynamics Therapy – A New Direction for the Initial Treatment of Low Back Pain. European Musculoskeletal Review. 45-48.
  19.  Awad, J. N., & Moskovich, R. (2006). Lumbar disc Herniations. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 443, 183-197.
  20.  Andersson, G. B., Schultz, A. B., & Nachemson, A. L. (1983). Intervertebral disc pressures during traction. Scandinavian journal of rehabilitation medicine. Supplement9(2), 88-91.
  21.  Shealy, C. N. (2005). Long-term effect analysis of IDD therapy in low back pian: a retrospective clinical pilot study. American Journal of Pain Management15, 93-97.
  22.  Shealy, C. N. (2005). Intervertebral differential dynamics therapy. Practical Pain Management, 5(3), 64-65.
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 Demirel, A., Yorubulut, M., & Ergun, N. (2017). Regression of lumbar disc herniation by physiotherapy. Does non-surgical spinal decompression therapy make a difference? double-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, 30(5), 1015-1022.
  24.  Schaufele, M. K., & Newsome, M. (2011). Intervertebral Differential Dynamics (IDD) Therapy vs. Exercise Based Physical Therapy–Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Physikalische Medizin, Rehabilitationsmedizin, Kurortmedizin, 21(01), 34-40.
  25.  Ekediegwu, E., Chuka, C., Nwosu, I., Ogbueche, C., Ekechukwu, E., Uchenwoke, C., & Odole, A. (2021). Reduction in Chronic Low Back Pain Using Intervertebral Differential Dynamics Therapy (IDDT) and Routine Physiotherapy: A Retrospective Pre-Post Study. Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment, 7(2) :098
  26.  Kang, J.I., Jeong, D.K., Choi, H. (2016). Effect of spinal decompression on the lumbar muscle activity and disk height in patients with herniated intervertebral disk. Journal of Physical Therapy Science 28: 3125-3130.
  27.  Henry, L. (2015). Non-surgical spinal decompression of lumbar disc herniation: a case report and proposed multimodal chiropractic treatment approach. The Internet Journal of Chiropractic. 4:1
  28.  Macario, A., Richmond, C., Auster, M., Pergolizzi, J.V. (2008).  Treatment of 94 outpatients with chronic discogenic low back pain with the DRX9000: a retrospective chart review. Pain Practical. 8(1):11-17. Doi: 10.1111/j.1533-2500.2007.00167.x. PMID: 18211590.