1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Handwashing: Clean hands save lives. Available from: (accessed 13 March 2020)
  2.  World Health Organization. Evidence of hand hygiene to reduce transmission and infections by multi-drug resistant organisms in health-care settings. WHO. 2014.
  3.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MRSA. Available from: (accessed 14 March 2020)
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 4.2 Boyce, J.M. and Pittet, D., 2002. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 23(S12), pp.S3-S40.
  5.  Jefferson T, Del Mar C, Dooley L, Ferroni E, Al-Ansary LA, Bawazeer GA, Van Driel ML, Foxlee R, Rivetti A. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review. Bmj. 2009 Sep 22;339:b3675.
  6.  Ejemot‐Nwadiaro RI, Ehiri JE, Meremikwu MM, Critchley JA. Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2008(1).
  7. ↑ Jump up to:7.0 7.1 Aiello AE, Coulborn RM, Perez V, Larson EL. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious disease risk in the community setting: a meta-analysis. American journal of public health. 2008 Aug;98(8):1372-81.
  8.  Freeman MC, Stocks ME, Cumming O, Jeandron A, Higgins JP, Wolf J, Prüss‐Ustün A, Bonjour S, Hunter PR, Fewtrell L, Curtis V. Systematic review: hygiene and health: systematic review of handwashing practices worldwide and update of health effects. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2014 Aug;19(8):906-16.
  9.  Huang DB, Zhou J. Effect of intensive handwashing in the prevention of diarrhoeal illness among patients with AIDS: a randomized controlled study. Journal of medical microbiology. 2007 May 1;56(5):659-63.
  10.  Wang Z, Lapinski M, Quilliam E, Jaykus LA, Fraser A. The effect of hand-hygiene interventions on infectious disease-associated absenteeism in elementary schools: A systematic literature review. American journal of infection control. 2017 Jun 1;45(6):682-9.
  11.  Recommendations from the CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings, by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, 3MHealthCare
  12.  “Handwashing – Clean Hands Save Lives | CDC.” Accessed 13 Mar. 2020.
  13.  The WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare (Advanced Draft) Accessed on 13/March/2020.
  14. ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 CDC. What You Need To Know About Handwashing Transcript. Reviewed 23 July 2019
  15.  Minnesota Department of Health. Which Soap is Best? Last updated 9 March 2020
  16.  Centers for Disease Control and and Prevention.What You Need To Know About Handwashing. Published on 16 December 2019. Available from [last accessed 17 March 2020]
  17.  World Health Organisation. WHO: How to handwash? With soap and water. Published on 20 October 2015. Available from [last accessed 17 March 2020]
  18.  WHO: How to handrub? With alcohol-based formulation, World Health Organisation, Oct 2015,
  19.  Pittet D. Improving compliance with hand hygiene in hospitals. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. 2000 Jun;21(6):381-6.
  20. ↑ Jump up to:20.0 20.1 Lathia C, Skelton P and Clift Z. Early Rehabilitation in Conflicts and Disasters. Humanity and Inclusion. 2020