1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Weir A, Brukner P, Delahunt E, Ekstrand J, Griffin D, Khan KM, Lovell G, Meyers WC, Muschaweck U, Orchard J, Paajanen H. Doha agreement meeting on terminology and definitions in groin pain in athletes. British journal of sports medicine. 2015 Jun 1;49(12):768-74.
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.0 2.1 2.2 Orchard JW. Men at higher risk of groin injuries in elite team sports: a systematic review. British journal of sports medicine. 2015 Jun 1;49(12):798-802.
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 Tyler TF, Fukunaga T, Gellert J. Rehabilitation of soft tissue injuries of the hip and pelvis. International journal of sports physical therapy 2014;9(6):785.
  4.  Kerkhoffs GM, Servien E, editors. Acute muscle injuries. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 Kiel J, Kaiser K. Adductor Strain. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island; 2018.
  6.  Overview of the muscles of the hip and thigh – anterior and posterior views image – © Kenhub
  7.  AnatomyZone Muscles of the Thigh Part 2 – Medial Compartment – Anatomy Tutorial Available from
  8.  Hölmich P, Thorborg K, Dehlendorff C, Krogsgaard K, Gluud C. Incidence and clinical presentation of groin injuries in sub-elite male soccer. British journal of sports medicine. 2014 Aug 1;48(16):1245-50.
  9.  Norton‐old KJ, Schache AG, Barker PJ, Clark RA, Harrison SM, Briggs CA. Anatomical and mechanical relationship between the proximal attachment of adductor longus and the distal rectus sheath. Clinical Anatomy 2013;26(4):522-30.
  10.  Muscles of the hip and thigh video – © Kenhub
  11.  Waldén M, Hägglund M, Ekstrand J. The epidemiology of groin injury in senior football: a systematic review of prospective studies. British journal of sports medicine. 2015 Jun 1;49(12):792-7.
  12. ↑ Jump up to:12.0 12.1 Tyler TF, Silvers HJ, Gerhardt MB, Nicholas SJ. Groin injuries in sports medicine. Sports health 2010;2(3):231-6.
  13.  Serner A, Mosler AB, Tol JL, Bahr R, Weir A. Mechanisms of acute adductor longus injuries in male football players: a systematic visual video analysis. British journal of sports medicine. 2019 Feb 1;53(3):158-64.
  14. ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 McSweeney SE, Naraghi A, Salonen D, Theodoropoulos J, White LM. Hip and groin pain in the professional athlete. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal 2012;63(2):87-99.
  15.  Serner A, Weir A, Tol JL, Thorborg K, Roemer F, Guermazi A, Yamashiro E, Hölmich P. Characteristics of acute groin injuries in the adductor muscles: a detailed MRI study in athletes. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2018 Feb;28(2):667-76.
  16. ↑ Jump up to:16.0 16.1 Thorborg K, Reiman MP, Weir A, Kemp JL, Serner A, Mosler AB, Hölmich P. Clinical examination, diagnostic imaging, and testing of athletes with groin pain: an evidence-based approach to effective management. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy. 2018 Apr;48(4):239-49.
  17.  Davies AG, Clarke AW, Gilmore J, Wotherspoon M, Connell DA. imaging of groin pain in the athlete. Skeletal radiology. 2010 Jul;39(7):629-44.
  18.  Hölmich P. Long-standing groin pain in sportspeople falls into three primary patterns, a “clinical entity” approach: a prospective study of 207 patients. British journal of sports medicine. 2007 Apr 1;41(4):247-52.
  19.  Serner A, van Eijck CH, Beumer BR, Hölmich P, Weir A, de Vos RJ. Study quality on groin injury management remains low: a systematic review on treatment of groin pain in athletes. British journal of sports medicine. 2015 Jun 1;49(12):813-.
  20.  Branci S, Thorborg K, Nielsen MB, Hölmich P. Radiological findings in symphyseal and adductor-related groin pain in athletes: a critical review of the literature. British journal of sports medicine. 2013 Jul 1;47(10):611-9.
  21.  Branci S, Thorborg K, Bech BH, Boesen M, Nielsen MB, Hölmich P. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls. British journal of sports medicine. 2015 May
  22.  Thorborg K, Hölmich P, Christensen R, Petersen J, Roos EM. The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS): development and validation according to the COSMIN checklist. British journal of sports medicine. 2011 May 1;45(6):478-91.
  23.  Wichita, groin squeeze test. Access from
  24. ↑ Jump up to:24.0 24.1 Hölmich P. Groin injuries in athletes—development of clinical entities, treatment, and prevention. Dan Med J. 2015 Dec 1;62(12):B5184.
  25. ↑ Jump up to:25.0 25.1 Serner A, Tol JL, Jomaah N, Weir A, Whiteley R, Thorborg K, Robinson M, Hölmich P. Diagnosis of acute groin injuries: a prospective study of 110 athletes. The American journal of sports medicine. 2015 Aug;43(8):1857-64.
  26.  Elattar O, Choi HR, Dills VD, Busconi B. Groin injuries (athletic pubalgia) and return to play. Sports health. 2016 Jul;8(4):313-23.
  27. ↑ Jump up to:27.0 27.1 Kiel J, Kaiser K. Adductor Strain. 2018
  28.  Queiroz RD, Carvalho RT, Queiroz Szeles PR, Janovsky C, Cohen M. Return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among professional soccer players. Revista brasileira de ortopedia. 2014 May;49:233-9.
  29.  Bastia P, Ghirarduzzi P, Schiavi P, Donelli D, Pedrazzini A, Leigheb M, Ceccarelli F, Pogliacomi F. Surgical or conservative treatment in ARGP syndrome? A systematic review. Acta Bio Medica: Atenei Parmensis. 2019;90(Suppl 12):14.
  30.  Engebretsen AH, Myklebust G, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Intrinsic risk factors for groin injuries among male soccer players: a prospective cohort study. The American journal of sports medicine. 2010 Oct;38(10):2051-7.
  31. ↑ Jump up to:31.0 31.1 Whittaker JL, Small C, Maffey L, Emery CA. Risk factors for groin injury in sport: an updated systematic review. British journal of sports medicine. 2015 Jun 1;49(12):803-9.
  32.  Hölmich P, Larsen K, Krogsgaard K, Gluud C. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster‐randomized trial. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2010 Dec;20(6):814-21.
  33. ↑ Jump up to:33.0 33.1 33.2 Harøy J, Clarsen B, Wiger EG, Øyen MG, Serner A, Thorborg K, Hölmich P, Andersen TE, Bahr R. The adductor strengthening programme prevents groin problems among male football players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. British journal of sports medicine 2019;53(3):150-7.
  34. ↑ Jump up to:34.0 34.1 34.2 King E, Franklyn-Miller A, Richter C, O’Reilly E, Doolan M, Moran K, Strike S, Falvey É. Clinical and biomechanical outcomes of rehabilitation targeting intersegmental control in athletic groin pain: prospective cohort of 205 patients. British journal of sports medicine. 2018 Aug 1;52(16):1054-62.
  35. ↑ Jump up to:35.0 35.1 Yousefzadeh A, Shadmehr A, Olyaei GR, Naseri N, Khazaeipour Z. The Effect of Therapeutic Exercise on Long-Standing Adductor-Related Groin Pain in Athletes: Modified Hölmich Protocol. Rehabilitation research and practice 2018;1-10.
  36.  Hölmich P, Uhrskou P, Ulnits L, Kanstrup IL, Nielsen MB, Bjerg AM, Krogsgaard K. Effectiveness of active physical training as treatment for long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes: randomised trial. The Lancet. 1999 Feb 6;353(9151):439-43.
  37.  The Prehab Guys. 3 Exercises to Prehab your Adductor Strain / Groin Pain. Available from
  38.  Delmore RJ, Laudner KG, Torry MR. Adductor longus activation during common hip exercises. Journal of sport rehabilitation 2014;23(2):79-87.
  39.  Natalie Wetzel.Adductor isometric exercise. Available from
  40.  Jason Craig Hip Adductor Strengthening in Side Lying. Available from
  41.  Upright Health An exercise to safely strengthen your adductors.Available from
  42.  Jensen J, Hölmich P, Bandholm T, Zebis MK, Andersen LL, Thorborg K. Eccentric strengthening effect of hip-adductor training with elastic bands in soccer players: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2014;48(4):332-8.
  43.  Pereira GR, Leporace G, das Virgens Chagas D, Furtado LF, Praxedes J, Batista LA. Influence of hip external rotation on hip adductor and rectus femoris myoelectric activity during a dynamic parallel squat. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 2010;24(10):2749-54.
  44. Sumo Squats: Works your inner thighs, quads and glutes! Multiple Fitness Level Tutorial. Available from
  45.  Krommes K, Bandholm T, Jakobsen MD, Andersen LL, Serner A, Hölmich P, Thorborg K. Dynamic hip adduction, abduction and abdominal exercises from the Holmich groin-injury prevention program are intense enough to be considered strengthening exercises–a cross-sectional study. International journal of sports physical therapy 2017;12(3):371.
  46.  Kloskowska P, Morrissey D, Small C, Malliaras P, Barton C. Movement patterns and muscular function before and after onset of sports-related groin pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Sports Medicine 2016;46(12):1847-67.
  47.  eHowFitness How to Do Thigh Abduction & Adduction Exercises With Bands : Stretching & Exercise. Available from