1.  Myers, J.B., C.A. Wassinger, and S.M. Lephart. Sensorimotor Contribution to Shoulder Joint Stability, in The Athlete’s Shoulder. 2009, Elsevier. p. 655-669.
  2.  Lephart SM, Riemann BL, Fu FH. Introduction to the sensorimotor system. In: Lephart SM, Fu FH, eds. Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control in Joint Stability. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2000:37–51
  3.  Blasier RB, Carpenter JE, Huston LJ (1994) Shoulder proprioception: effect of joint laxity, joint position and direction of motion. Orthop Rev 23:45–50.
  4.  Curl LA, Warren RF. Glenohumeral joint stability: selective cutting studies on the static capsular restraints. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®. 1996 Sep 1;330:54-65.
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 Wilk KE, Yenchak AJ, Arrigo CA, Andrews JR. The advanced throwers ten exercise program: a new exercise series for enhanced dynamic shoulder control in the overhead throwing athlete. Phys Sportsmed. 2011;39(4):91–3847.
  6.  Myers JB, Lephart SM. The role of the sensoriomotor system in the athletic shoulder. J Athl Train. 2000;35(3):351–63.
  7.  GUStrength. What is a Muscle Force Couple?. Available from:[last accessed 4/5/2020]
  8.  Hallock GG. The hemideltoid muscle flap. Ann Plast Surg. 2000 Jan;44(1):18-22.
  9.  Levangie PK, Norkin CC. Joint Structure and Function; A Comprehensive Analysis. 5th. Philadelphia: Fadavis Company. 2012.
  10. ↑ Jump up to:10.0 10.1 Levangie PK, Norkin CC. Joint Structure and Function; A Comprehensive Analysis. 5th. Philadelphia: Fadavis Company. 2012.
  11. ↑ Jump up to:11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Lam JH, Bordoni B. Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Arm Abductor Muscles. [Updated 2020 Mar 31]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from:
  12.  Escamilla RF, Yamashiro K, Paulos L, Andrews JR. Shoulder muscle activity and function in common shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Sports medicine. 2009 Aug 1;39(8):663-85.
  13.  Longo UG, Berton A, Papapietro N, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Biomechanics of the rotator cuff: European perspective. InRotator Cuff Tear 2012 (Vol. 57, pp. 10-17). Karger Publishers.
  14. ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 Ludewig PM, Braman JP. Shoulder impingement: biomechanical considerations in rehabilitation. Manual therapy. 2011 Feb 1;16(1):33-9.
  15.  Neumann DA, Camargo PR. Kinesiologic considerations for targeting activation of scapulothoracic muscles: part 1: serratus anterior. Brazilian journal of physical therapy. 2019 Feb 2.
  16.  Camargo PR, Neumann DA. Kinesiologic considerations for targeting activation of scapulothoracic muscles–part 2: trapezius. Brazilian journal of physical therapy. 2019 Feb 3.
  17.  Muscle and Motion. Force Couple , Scapular Force Couple. Available from:[last accessed 12/3/2020]
  18. ↑ Jump up to:18.0 18.1 Phadke V, Camargo PR, Ludewig PM. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: a review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy. 2009 Feb;13(1):1-9.
  19.  <article> Joseph B. Myers, Ji-Hye Hwang, Maria R. Pasquale, J. Troy Blackburn and Scott M. Lephart. Rotator cuff coactivation ratios in participants with subacromial impingement syndrome.  Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Volume 12, Issue 6, November 2009, Pages 603-608 </article>
  20.  Reinold MM, Gill TJ, Wilk KE, Andrews JR. Current concepts in the evaluation and treatment of the shoulder in overhead throwing athletes, part 2: injury prevention and treatment. Sports Health. 2010;2(2):101–15.
  21.  Eshoj, H. R., Rasmussen, S., Frich, L. H., Hvass, I., Christensen, R., Boyle, E., Juul-Kristensen, B. (2020). Neuromuscular Exercises Improve Shoulder Function More Than Standard Care Exercises in Patients With a Traumatic Anterior Shoulder Dislocation: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine.
  22.  Baritello, O., Khajooei, M., Engel, T. et al. Neuromuscular shoulder activity during exercises with different combinations of stable and unstable weight mass. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 12, 21 (2020).
  23.  Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Andersen JL, Magnusson P, Dyhre-Poulsen P. Neural adaptation to resistance training: changes in evoked V-wave and H-reflex responses. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(6):2309–18.
  24.  Behm DG. Neuromuscular implications and applications of resistance training; 1995. p. 264–74.
  25.  Behm DG, Anderson KG. The role of instability with resistance training. J strength Cond Res. 2006;20:716–22.
  26.  Richardson E, Lewis JS, Gibson J, Morgan C, Halaki M, Ginn K, Yeowell G. Role of the kinetic chain in shoulder rehabilitation: does incorporating the trunk and lower limb into shoulder exercise regimes influence shoulder muscle recruitment patterns? Systematic review of electromyography studies. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2020 Apr 1;6(1):e000683.
  27.  Moghadam AN, Abdi K, Shati M, Dehkordi SN, Keshtkar AA, Mosallanezhad Z. The effectiveness of exercise therapy on scapular position and motion in individuals with scapular dyskinesis: systematic review protocol. JMIR research protocols. 2017;6(12):e240.
  28.  Larsson R, Bernhardsson S, Nordeman L. Effects of eccentric exercise in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2019 Dec 1;20(1):446.
  29.  Ortega-Castillo M, Medina-Porqueres I. Effectiveness of the eccentric exercise therapy in physically active adults with symptomatic shoulder impingement or lateral epicondylar tendinopathy: a systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2016 Jun 1;19(6):438-53.
  30.  White Lion Athletics. Resistance Band Exercises: Best Exercises for Shoulder Rehab and Scapular Stabilzation. Available from:[last accessed 11/4/2020]