1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Vitacca M, Lazzeri M, Guffanti E, Frigerio P, D’Abrosca F, Gianola S, Carone M, Paneroni M, Ceriana P, Pasqua F, Banfi P, Gigliotti F, Simonelli C, Cirio S, Rossi V, Beccaluva CG, Retucci M, Santambrogio M, Lanza A, Gallo F, Fumagalli A, Mantero M, Castellini G, Calabrese M, Castellana G, Volpato E, Ciriello M, Garofano M, Clini E, Ambrosino N, ARIR (Associazione Riabilitatori dell’Insufficienza Respiratoria), SIP (Società Italiana di Pneumologia) AIFI (Associazione Italiana Fisioterapisti) and SIFIR (Società Italiana di Fisioterapia e Riabilitazione) on behalf of A (Associazione IPO. Italian suggestions for pulmonary rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients recovering from acute respiratory failure: results of a Delphi process. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis [Internet]. 2020 Jun.23;90(2). Available from:
  2.  World Health Organization. Rehabilitation 2030: A Call for Action. Meeting report. 2017. Feb 6-7. Available from (last accessed 24 June 2020)
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 Pan American Health Organisation. Rehabilitation considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak.2020. 26 Apr. (last accessed 24 June 2020)
  4. ↑ Jump up to:4.0 4.1 World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT). WCPT response to COVID-19 Briefing paper 2. Rehabilitation and the vital role of Physiotherapy. May 2020. (last accessed 24 June 2020)
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Sheehy LM. Considerations for postacute rehabilitation for survivors of COVID-19. JMIR public health and surveillance. 2020;6(2):e19462.
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  7. ↑ Jump up to:7.0 7.1 Adab P, Haroon S, O’Hara ME, Jordan RE. Comorbidities and Covid-19. BMJ. 2022 Jun 15;377.
  8.  Rabaan AA, Bakhrebah MA, Mutair AA, Alhumaid S, Al-Jishi JM, AlSihati J, Albayat H, Alsheheri A, Aljeldah M, Garout M, Alfouzan WA. Systematic review on pathophysiological complications in severe COVID-19 among the non-vaccinated and vaccinated population. Vaccines. 2022 Jun 21;10(7):985.
  9.  Connolly B, O’neill B, Salisbury L, Blackwood B. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews. Thorax. 2016 Oct 1;71(10):881-90.
  10. ↑ Jump up to:10.0 10.1 10.2 Shepherd S, Batra A, Lerner DP. Review of critical illness myopathy and neuropathy. The Neurohospitalist. 2017 Jan;7(1):41-8.
  11. ↑ Jump up to:11.0 11.1 11.2 Cheung K, Rathbone A, Melanson M, Trier J, Ritsma BR, Allen MD. Pathophysiology and management of critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2021 May 1;130(5):1479-89.
  12. ↑ Jump up to:12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Stam H, Stucki G, Bickenbach J. Covid-19 and post intensive care syndrome: A call for action. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2020 Apr 14.
  13.  Vrettou CS, Mantziou V, Vassiliou AG, Orfanos SE, Kotanidou A, Dimopoulou I. Post-Intensive Care Syndrome in Survivors from Critical Illness including COVID-19 Patients: A Narrative Review. Life. 2022 Jan 12;12(1):107.
  14.  Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, Cai Y, Liu T, Yang F, Gong W, Liu X, Liang J, Zhao Q, Huang H. Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA cardiology. 2020 Mar 25.
  15. ↑ Jump up to:15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 Yang T, Yan MZ, Li X, Lau EH. Sequelae of COVID-19 among previously hospitalized patients up to 1 year after discharge: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Infection. 2022 Jun 24:1-43.
  16. ↑ Jump up to:16.0 16.1 Chang MC, Park D. How should rehabilitative departments of hospitals prepare for coronavirus disease 2019?. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation. 2020 Jun;99(6):475.
  17.  Herman C, Mayer K, Sarwal A. Scoping review of prevalence of neurologic comorbidities in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Neurology. 2020 Apr 24.
  18.  Ahmad SJ, Feigen CM, Vazquez JP, Kobets AJ, Altschul DJ. Neurological Sequelae of COVID-19. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience. 2022 Apr 6;21(3):77.
  19.  Simonelli C, Paneroni M, Fokom AG, Saleri M, Speltoni I, Favero I, Garofali F, Scalvini S, Vitacca M. How the COVID-19 infection tsunami revolutionized the work of respiratory physiotherapists: an experience from Northern Italy. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease. 2020 May 19;90(2).
  20. ↑ Jump up to:20.0 20.1 Hasan LK, Deadwiler B, Haratian A, Bolia IK, Weber AE, Petrigliano FA. Effects of COVID-19 on the musculoskeletal system: clinician’s guide. Orthopedic Research and Reviews. 2021;13:141.
  21. ↑ Jump up to:21.0 21.1 Kiekens C, Boldrini P, Andreoli A, Avesani R, Gamna F, Grandi M, Lombardi F, Lusuardi M, Molteni F, Perboni A, Negrini S. Rehabilitation and respiratory management in the acute and early post-acute phase.“Instant paper from the field” on rehabilitation answers to the Covid-19 emergency. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2020 Apr 15:06305-4.
  22. ↑ Jump up to:22.0 22.1 Kho, M.E., Brooks, D., Namasivayam-MacDonald, A., Sangrar, R. and Vrkljan, B.Rehabilitation for Patients with COVID-19. Guidance for Occupational Therapists, Physical Therapists, Speech-Language Pathologists and Assistants. School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University. 2020. May 6 Available from (last accessed 24 June 2020)
  23.  World Health Organization. Rehabilitation needs of people recovering from COVID-19: scientific brief, 29 November 2021. World Health Organization; 2021.
  24.  Polastri M, Ciasca A, Nava S, Andreoli E. Two years of COVID-19: trends in rehabilitation. Pulmonology. 2022 Feb 3.
  25.  World Health Organization. Clinical management of COVID-19: living guideline, 15 September 2022. World Health Organization; 2022.
  26. ↑ Jump up to:26.0 26.1 26.2 Zhao HM, Xie YX, Wang C. Recommendations for respiratory rehabilitation in adults with COVID-19. Chinese medical journal. 2020 Apr 3.
  27.  Liu K, Zhang W, Yang Y, Zhang J, Li Y, Chen Y. Respiratory rehabilitation in elderly patients with COVID-19: A randomized controlled study. Complementary therapies in clinical practice. 2020 Apr 1:101166.
  28.  Spruit M, Holland A, Singh S, Troosters T. Report of an AD hoc international Task force to develop an expert-based opinion on early and short-term rehabilitative interventions (after the acute hospital setting) in COVID 19 survivors, 2020.
  29.  Soril LJ, Stickland MK. Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Post-COVID-19 Patients.
  30. ↑ Jump up to:30.0 30.1 Royal Dutch Society for Physiotherapy 2020. KNGF position statement: Physiotherapy recommendations in patients with COVID-19. Amersfoort, Netherlands: KNGF.
  31. ↑ Jump up to:31.0 31.1 31.2 Olezene CS, Hansen E, Steere HK, Giacino JT, Polich GR, Borg-Stein J, Zafonte RD, Schneider JC. Functional outcomes in the inpatient rehabilitation setting following severe COVID-19 infection. PLoS One. 2021 Mar 31;16(3):e0248824.
  32.  Felten-Barentsz KM, van Oorsouw R, Klooster E, Koenders N, Driehuis F, Hulzebos EH, van der Schaaf M, Hoogeboom TJ, van der Wees PJ. Recommendations for Hospital-Based Physical Therapists Managing Patients With COVID-19. Physical Therapy. 2020 Jun 18.