1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 Dr. Mike Evans.Concussion 101, a Primer for Kids and Parents. Available from: [last accessed 14/6/13]
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 McCrory P, Meeuwisse WH, Dvorak J, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: The 5th international conference on concussion in sport, Berlin, October 2016. Bri J Sport Med. 2017;51:838-847
  3.  Manaseer TS, Gross DP, Dennett L, Schneider K, Whittaker JL. Gait deviations associated with concussion: a systematic review. Clinical journal of sport medicine. 2020 Mar 1;30:S11-28.
  4.  Grool AM, Aglipay M, Momoli F, et al. Association between early participation in physical activity following acute concussion and persistent postconcussive symptoms in children and adolescents. JAMA. 2016;316(23):2504-2514.
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Giza CC, Kutcher JS, Ashwal S, Barth J, Getchius TS, Gloia GA, Gronseth GS, Guskiewickz K, Mandel S, Manley G, McKeag DB, Thurman DJ, Zavonte R. Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports: Report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American academy of neurology. Neurology [Internet]. 2013 Mar 18 [cited 2013 Jun 1]; 80(24). 2250-2257. Available from:
  6.  Lincoln AE, Caswell SV, Almquist JL, Dunn RE, Norris JB, Hinton RY. Trends in concussion incidence in high school sports: a prospective 11-year study. Am J Sports Med. 2011; 39(5): 958-63.
  7.  McCrea M, Barr WB, Guskiewicz K, Randolph C, Marshall SW, Cantu R, Onate JA, Kell JP. Standard regression-based methods for measuring recovery after sport-related concussion. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2005; 11(1): 28-69.
  8.  Chan M, Vielleuse JV, Vokaty S, Wener MA, Pearson I, Gagnon I. Test-retest reliability of the sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT 2) for uninjured children and young adults. Br J Sports Med. 2013; 47.
  9.  The Lancet Neurology. Time for a game changer in the management of concussion. Lancet. 2013; 12(5), 415.
  10.  Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, Clement C, Lesiuk H, Laupacis A, McKnight RD, Verbeek R, Brison R, Eisenhauer ME, Greenberg G, Worthington J. The Canadian CT Head Rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet. 2001; 357(9266): 1391-1396.
  11. ↑ Jump up to:11.0 11.1 Hrysomallis, C., 2016. Neck muscular strength, training, performance and sport injury risk: a review. Sports Medicine46(8), pp.1111-1124.
  12.  Dezman, Z.D., Ledet, E.H. and Kerr, H.A., 2013. Neck strength imbalance correlates with increased head acceleration in soccer heading. Sports Health5(4), pp.320-326.
  13.  Schmidt, J.D., Guskiewicz, K.M., Blackburn, J.T., Mihalik, J.P., Siegmund, G.P. and Marshall, S.W., 2014. The influence of cervical muscle characteristics on head impact biomechanics in football. The American journal of sports medicine42(9), pp.2056-2066.
  14.  Gutierrez, G.M., Conte, C. and Lightbourne, K., 2014. The relationship between impact force, neck strength, and neurocognitive performance in soccer heading in adolescent females. Pediatric exercise science26(1), pp.33-40.
  15.  Eckner, J.T., Oh, Y.K., Joshi, M.S., Richardson, J.K. and Ashton-Miller, J.A., 2014. Effect of neck muscle strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation on the kinematic response of the head to impulsive loads. The American journal of sports medicine42(3), pp.566-576.
  16.  Broglio, S.P., Schnebel, B., Sosnoff, J.J., Shin, S., Feng, X., He, X. and Zimmerman, J., 2010. The biomechanical properties of concussions in high school football. Medicine and science in sports and exercise42(11), p.2064.
  17.  Blennow, K., Hardy, J. and Zetterberg, H., 2012. The neuropathology and neurobiology of traumatic brain injury. Neuron76(5), pp.886-899.
  18.  Guskiewicz, K.M., Mihalik, J.P., Shankar, V., Marshall, S.W., Crowell, D.H., Oliaro, S.M., Ciocca, M.F. and Hooker, D.N., 2007. Measurement Of Head Impacts In Collegiate Football Playersrelationship Between Head Impact Biomechanics And Acute Clinical Outcome After Concussion. Neurosurgery61(6), pp.1244-1253.
  19. ↑ Jump up to:19.0 19.1 Collins, C.L., Fletcher, E.N., Fields, S.K., Kluchurosky, L., Rohrkemper, M.K., Comstock, R.D. and Cantu, R.C., 2014. Neck strength: a protective factor reducing risk for concussion in high school sports. The journal of primary prevention35(5), pp.309-319.
  20.  Jin, X., Feng, Z., Mika, V., Li, H., Viano, D.C. and Yang, K.H., 2017. The role of neck muscle activities on the risk of mild traumatic brain injury in American football. Journal of biomechanical engineering139(10), p.101002.
  21.  Versteegh, T., Beaudet, D., Greenbaum, M., Hellyer, L., Tritton, A. and Walton, D., 2015. Evaluating the reliability of a novel neck-strength assessment protocol for healthy adults using self-generated resistance with a hand-held dynamometer. Physiotherapy Canada67(1), pp.58-64.
  22.  Fisher, J.P., Asanovich, M., Cornwell, R. and Steele, J., 2016. A neck strengthening protocol in adolescent males and females for athletic injury prevention. Journal of trainology5(1), pp.13-17.
  23.  DeKosky ST, Ikonomovic MD, Gandy S. Traumatic brain injury-football, warfare and long term effects. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363(14), 1293-6.
  24.  Belanger HE, Spiegel E, Vanderploeg RD. Neuropsychological performance following a history of multiple self-reported concussions: a meta-analysis. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2010; 16(2), 262-7.
  25.  Boston University. What is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy? [Internet]. Boston: Boston University [undated]. Available from: