1.  Louw A, Nijs J, Puentedura EJ. A clinical perspective on a pain neuroscience education approach to manual therapy. J Man Manip Ther. 2017; 25(3): 160-168.
  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Woolf CJ, Latremoliere A. Central Sensitization: A generator of pain hypersensitivity by central neural plasticity. The Journal of Pain 2009; 10(9):895-926
  3.  Loeser JD, Treede RD. The Kyoto protocol of IASP basic pain terminology. Pain 2008;137: 473–7.
  4.  Dhal JB, Kehlet H. Postoperative pain and its management. In:McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, editors. Wall and Melzack’s Textbook of pain. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone;2006. p635-51.
  5.  International Association for the Study of Pain. IASP Terminology. Available from: [Accessed 19 July 2020]
  6.  Meeus M, Nijs J, Van der Wauwer N, Toeback L, Truijen S. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control is delayed in chronic fatigue syndrome: an experimental study. Pain 2008;139:439-48
  7.  Meeus M, Nijs J. Central Sensitization: a biopyschosocial explanation for chronic widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical Rheumatology 2007; 26:465-73
  8. ↑ Jump up to:8.0 8.1 Woolf CJ. What to call the amplification of nociceptive signals in the central nervous system that contribute to widespread pain? Pain 2014. Article in Press.
  9.  Hansson P. PAIN 2014. pii: S0304-3959(14)00335-2
  10.  Body in Mind. Everything you wanted to know about CENTRAL SENSITISATION (accessed 10 June 2014)
  11.  Woolf CJ.Evidence of a central component of post-injury pain hypersensitivity. Nature 1983;306;686-688.
  12.  Woolf CJ, Saltar MW. Neuronal plasticity:increasing the gain in pain. Science 2000;288:1765-69.
  13.  Khan academy stages of transcription Available from: (last accessed 1.6.2020)
  14. ↑ Jump up to:14.0 14.1 Mayer ML, Westbroke GL, Guthrie, PB. Voltage-dependant block by Mg2+ of NMDA responses in spinal cord neurones. Nature 1984;309:261-263.
  15.  International Association for the Study of Pain. Pain Terms: A Current List with Definitions and Notes on Usage. 12 July 2014
  16. ↑ Jump up to:16.0 16.1 Hucho T, Levine JD. Signalling pathways in sensitization: Towards a nociceptor cell biology. Neuron 2007;55:365-376
  17.  Danny Orchard. Peripheral and central sensitisation. Available from: [last accessed 22/11/15]
  18.  Smart KM, Blake C,Staines A, Doody C. Clinical Indicators of “Nociceptive”, “peripheral neuropathic”, and “central sensitisation” as mechanisms based classifications of musculoskeletal pain. A Delphi survey of expert clinicians. Manual Therapy 2010;15:80-7
  19.  Schäfer A, Hall T, Briffa K. Classification of low back-related leg pain—A proposed patho-mechanism-based approach. Manual Therapy. 2009 Apr 1;14(2):222–30.
  20.  Bennett M. The LANSS Pain Scale: the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs. Pain. 2001 May;92(1-2):147–57.
  21. ↑ Jump up to:21.0 21.1 Nijs J, Van Houdenhove B, Oostendorp RAB. Recognition of central sensitization in patients with musculoskeletal pain: application of pain neurophysiology in manual therapy practice. Manual Therapy 2010;15:135-41
  22.  Mayer TG, Neblett R, Cohen H, Howard KJ, Choi YH, Williams MJ, et al. The Development and Psychometric Validation of the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI). Pain Pract. 2012 Apr;12(4):276–85.
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 Nijs J, Meeus M, Van Oosterwijck J, Roussel N, De Kooning M, Ickmans K, et al. Treatment of central sensitization in patients with ‘unexplained’ chronic pain: what options do we have? Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011 May;12(7):1087–98.
  24. Prof Peter O’Sullivan – Back pain – separating fact from fiction. Available from:[last accessed 22/11/15]
  25.  Nijs J, Wilgen CP van, Oosterwijck JV, Ittersum M van, Meeus M. How to explain central sensitization to patients with ‘unexplained’ chronic musculoskeletal pain: Practice guidelines. Manual Therapy. 2011 Oct 1;16(5):413–8.
  26.  Moseley L. Tame the Beast. Available at (accessed 2 Mar 2020).
  27.  Lorimer Moseley. Tame the Beast. Available from [last accessed 09/03/2020]
  28.  Vicenzino B, Collins D, Wright A. The initial effects of a cervical spine manipulative physiotherapy treatment on the pain and dysfunction of lateral epicondylalgia. Pain. 1996 Nov;68(1):69–74.
  29.  Bialosky JE, Bishop MD, Robinson ME, Zeppieri G, George SZ. Spinal manipulative therapy has an immediate effect on thermal pain sensitivity in people with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2009 Dec;89(12):1292–303.
  30.  Bialosky JE, Bishop MD, Robinson ME, Barabas JA, George SZ. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: an experimental study in normal subjects. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008;9:19.
  31.  Moss P, Sluka K, Wright A. The initial effects of knee joint mobilization on osteoarthritic hyperalgesia. Man Ther. 2007 May;12(2):109–18.
  32.  Sluka KA, Skyba DA, Radhakrishnan R, Leeper BJ, Wright A. Joint mobilization reduces hyperalgesia associated with chronic muscle and joint inflammation in rats. J Pain. 2006 Aug;7(8):602–7.
  33. ↑ Jump up to:33.0 33.1 Leung A, Donohue M, Xu R, Lee R, Lefaucheur J-P, Khedr EM, et al. rTMS for suppressing neuropathic pain: a meta-analysis. J Pain. 2009 Dec;10(12):1205–16.
  34.  Leo RJ, Latif T. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in experimentally induced and chronic neuropathic pain: a review. J Pain. 2007 Jun;8(6):453–9.
  35.  Lefaucheur JP. The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in chronic neuropathic pain. Neurophysiol Clin. 2006 Jun;36(3):117–24.
  36.  Kosek E. Medical management of pain.Chapter 12. In: Sluka K. Mechanisms And management of pain for the physical therapist. IASP press, Seattle;2009. p. 231-55