1. ↑ Jump up to:1.0 1.1 Matthews AH, Stitson D. Osteonecrosis. InStatPearls. 2019. StatPearls Publishing. Available from: (last accessed 6 October 2019)
  2.  Dr ER tv Avascular necrosis Available from: (last accessed 6.10.19)
  3. ↑ Jump up to:3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Gruson K, Kwon Y. Atraumatic osteonecrosis of the humeral head. Bulletin of the NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases. 2009;67(1):6-14.
  4.  Zhao DW, Yu M, Hu K, Wang W, Yang L, Wang BJ, et al. Prevalence of Nontraumatic Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head and its Associated Risk Factors in the Chinese Population: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey. Chin Med J. 2015;128(21) : 2843-2850 (level 1a)
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 5.2 Lee MS, Hsieh PH, Shih CH, Wang CJ. Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head – from clinical to bench. Chang Gung Med J 2010;33(4):351-360
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 Bentley G. 2012. European Instructional. Lectures13th EFORT Congress. Berlin,Germany. 2012; 12: 148 e.v. (level 1a)
  7.  Niknejad MT, Gaillard F. Crescent sign of avascular necrosis. Available from′ (accessed 22 February 2020)(level 5)
  8.  Magee DJ. Orthopedic physical assessment. Saunders:St Louis, MO;2008.
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Klumpp R, Trevisan C. Aseptic osteonecrosis of the hip in the adult: current evidence on conservative treatment. Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism. 2015;12(Suppl 1):39–42. (level 2a)
  10.  Garino JP, Steinberg ME. Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients with Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head; A 2-to 10-Year Followup. Clinical orthopaedics and related research. 1997; 334: 108-115. (level 2a)
  11.  Neumayr LD, Aguilar C, Earles AN, Jergesen HE, Haberkern CM, Kammen BF, et al. Physical therapy alone compared with core decompression and physical therapy for femoral head osteonecrosis in sickle cell disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006; 88(12): 2573-2582. (level 1b)
  12.  Mass general, Total Hip Replacement, Rehabilitation & Physical Therapy Protocols ‘’ (level 5)
  13.  Paula Miller, Treating Avascular Necrosis, 21(17):23 (level 5)