In a sports career, there are not only impressive ups, but also unsuccessful falls. Moreover, they are possible both in a figurative and literal sense. And every traumatic event that caused physical damage needs full treatment and subsequent recovery. Rehabilitation of athletes after injuries of the musculoskeletal system pursues several goals, among which the vital one is the full compensation of lost functions.
THE CONTENT OF THE ARTICLE
- More about sports injuries
- Conservative treatment of injuries in athletes
- Modern methods of rehabilitation of athletes after injuries
- How does rehabilitation work after sports injuries?
- Why rehabilitation is so important, what threatens its absence
- When can I start classes and how soon will improvements occur?
MORE ABOUT SPORTS INJURIES
All traumatic injuries associated with sports activities are usually divided into 3 groups: mild, moderate and severe. Injuries resulting from frequent low-intensity mechanical impacts are called microtraumas. Due to prolonged overvoltage of various anatomical structures, tears appear in the tissues, and aseptic inflammation develops. Predominantly soft tissues suffer from microtraumatization: muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, synovial membranes. And it is sports microtraumatism that most often causes functional disorders, nonspecific pain and chronic pathologies of the musculoskeletal system.
Injuries caused by a sudden collision, fall or impact are called macrotrauma. Accompanied by severe pain, they lead to sprains, dislocations, fractures, pinched sensory nerves, and more.
The most important aspect of the medical rehabilitation of professional athletes and lovers of active physical training is the immediate treatment of injuries. Its success and duration largely depend on the nature of the injury and the general condition of the body.
CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT OF INJURIES IN ATHLETES
Not all traumatic injuries require surgical correction. But none of the therapeutic methods is capable of quickly returning a person to its former form. Only an integrated approach with the use of physical rehabilitation methods can overcome the consequences of an injury, restore psychosomatic health and sports performance. The program of conservative treatment combines the following methods:
- Physiotherapy : myoneurostimulation (excitation of muscles and motor nerves), phototherapy (removal of inflammation and muscle spasms), SMT (stimulation of peripheral circulation), magnetotherapy, electrophoresis (reduction of pain, acceleration of recovery), etc.
- Pharmacopuncture : microinjections of pharmacological and homeopathic preparations into trigger points and problem areas to relax muscles and eliminate local pain.
- Osteopathic correction : identification of dysfunctions and application of techniques aimed at eliminating internal blocks, normalizing blood and lymph circulation, improving joint mobility, spine and more.
- Massage : stimulates metabolic processes, activates muscle contractions, reduces soreness, prevents the development of atrophy, accelerates the resolution of edema and hematomas, etc.
- Exercise therapy : performing complexes of physical exercises in specially equipped gyms.
- Kinesio taping : the imposition of elastic kinesiology tapes (teips) designed to fix damaged and strengthen weakened areas of the body
- PRP-therapy : injections of platelet-rich autoplasma accelerate the healing and renewal of the body, reduce the severity of post-traumatic pain caused by damage to muscles, ligaments and joints, help reduce the drug load
- SVF-therapy : injection into the affected area of the stromal-vascular fraction containing stem cells of one’s own adipose tissue. The treatment accelerates the regenerative processes in the cartilage, prevents degeneration and pathological growth of the joints, eliminates inflammation in case of damage to the intra-articular tendons and menisci.
MODERN METHODS OF REHABILITATION OF ATHLETES AFTER INJURIES
The priority direction of work of the health-improving center “Laboratory of Movement” in St. Petersburg is the rehabilitation of athletes after injuries of the musculoskeletal system. When developing targeted rehabilitation programs that allow you to quickly restore health and return to sports, in addition to the above methods, innovative recovery technologies are used:
- CPM – mechanotherapy : classes on simulators of “permanent passive movement” contribute to the restoration of the functionality of the joints, stabilize the position of the body and prevent the occurrence of contractures
- LASM-therapy : instrumental mobilization of soft tissues with special instruments stimulates proprioceptive receptors of joints, muscles and tendons, relieves myofascial pain, regulates soft tissue tone, prevents the formation of pathological scars, accelerates healing.
- PNF Therapy : Movement therapy aimed at restoring functional connections between muscles and the CNS. Due to the training of weakened muscle groups that are in a state of chronic spasm, persistent compensatory adaptations from strong muscles are eliminated, asymmetry is eliminated, muscle-articular balance is stabilized, and the recovery process is accelerated.
- Neuromuscular activation NEURAC : kinesio training using specialized suspension systems that exclude axial load on the spine. NEURAC, aimed at working out the weakened links of the neurodynamic chain, eliminates pain and helps to resume the correct movement pattern.
- Manual therapy according to the concept of Mulligan and Kaltenborn-Event: the use of soft tissue and articular techniques aimed at the rapid reduction or complete removal of pain.
- Medical fitness : yoga and Pilates, which are actively used in the rehabilitation of athletes with injuries, ensure the harmonization of the soul and body, help relieve post-traumatic stress, evenly distribute and balance the load, eliminate the effects of forced hypokinesia, and speed up the recovery process.
HOW DOES REHABILITATION WORK AFTER SPORTS INJURIES?
Rehabilitation of athletes takes place according to an individual program, drawn up taking into account the injury, its possible complications, and the features of the treatment. When developing a recovery course, the indicators of the functional state of the patient’s body and the target sport must be taken into account. The interdisciplinary integrated approach used in the “Laboratory of Movement” allows you to effectively solve health problems and predict the possibility of a further sports career.
WHY REHABILITATION IS SO IMPORTANT, WHAT THREATENS ITS ABSENCE
The main goal of the medical rehabilitation of athletes is the complete restoration or compensation of functions (physiological, mental, social and professional) disturbed by trauma. At the same time, insufficient or complete absence of rehabilitation measures can lead to the progression of the pathological process, temporary disability and even disability.
WHEN CAN I START REHABILITATION AND HOW SOON WILL IMPROVEMENTS OCCUR?
It is necessary to start recovery after an injury almost from the first days, even while being in a hospital or receiving specialized medical care at home.
The duration of the rehabilitation phase depends on the type and severity of the traumatic injury, the functionality and recovery ability of the victim’s body. The sooner non-drug methods of rehabilitation are connected, the sooner improvements will come.
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