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  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 Kaur J, Garnawat D, Bhatia MS, Sachdev M. Rehabilitation in Alzheimer’s disease. Dehli Psychiatry J. 2013 Apr;16:166-70.
  7.  Cedervall Y, Åberg AC. Physical activity and implications on well-being in mild Alzheimer’s disease: A qualitative case study on two men with dementia and their spouses. Physiotherapy theory and practice. 2010 Jan 1;26(4):226-39.
  8.  van Alphen HJ, Hortobagyi T, van Heuvelen MJ. Barriers, motivators, and facilitators of physical activity in dementia patients: A systematic review. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2016 Sep 1;66:109-18.
  9. ↑ Jump up to:9.0 9.1 Elkins M. Exercise slows functional decline in nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s disease. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 2007 Sep 1;53(3):204-5.
  10. ↑ Jump up to:10.0 10.1 Manckoundia P, Taroux M, Kubicki A, Mourey F. Impact of ambulatory physiotherapy on motor abilities of elderly subjects with A lzheimer’s disease. Geriatrics & gerontology international. 2014 Jan;14(1):167-75.
  11. ↑ Jump up to:11.0 11.1 11.2 Fernando E, Fraser M, Hendriksen J, Kim CH, Muir-Hunter SW. Risk factors associated with falls in older adults with dementia: a systematic review. Physiotherapy Canada. 2017;69(2):161-70.
  12.  Williams CL, Tappen RM. Effect of exercise on mood in nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias®. 2007 Oct;22(5):389-97.
  13. ↑ Jump up to:13.0 13.1 Barnes JN. Exercise, cognitive function, and aging. Advances in physiology education. 2015 Jun;39(2):55-62.
  14.  Murray ME, Shee AW, West E, Morvell M, Theobald M, Versace V, Yates M. Impact of the Dementia Care in Hospitals Program on acute hospital staff satisfaction. BMC health services research. 2019 Dec 1;19(1):680.
  15.  Shumway-Cook A, Brauer S, Woollacott M. Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the Timed Up & Go Test. Physical therapy. 2000 Sep 1;80(9):896-903.
  16.  Muir-Hunter SW, Graham L, Montero Odasso M. Reliability of the Berg balance scale as a clinical measure of balance in community-dwelling older adults with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: a pilot study. Physiotherapy Canada. 2015 Aug;67(3):255-62.
  17.  Yozbatiran N, Der-Yeghiaian L, Cramer SC. A standardized approach to performing the action research arm test. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair. 2008 Jan;22(1):78-90.
  18.  Suzumura S, Osawa A, Nagahama T, Kondo I, Sano Y, Kandori A. Assessment of finger motor skills in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and patients with Alzheimer’s disease: Relationship between finger-to-thumb tapping and cognitive function. Japanese Journal of Comprehensive Rehabilitation Science. 2016;7:19-28.
  19.  Pfeffer RI, Kurosaki TT, Harrah Jr CH, Chance JM, Filos S. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community. Journal of gerontology. 1982 May 1;37(3):323-9.
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  21.  Arevalo‐Rodriguez I, Smailagic N, i Figuls MR, Ciapponi A, Sanchez‐Perez E, Giannakou A, Pedraza OL, Cosp XB, Cullum S. Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE) for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015(3).
  22.  Borson S, Scanlan JM, Chen P, Ganguli M. The Mini‐Cog as a screen for dementia: validation in a population‐based sample. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003 Oct;51(10):1451-4.
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 Borges-Machado F, Ribeiro Ó, Sampaio A, Marques-Aleixo I, Meireles J, Carvalho J. Feasibility and impact of a multicomponent exercise intervention in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: a pilot study. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2019 Mar 34(2):95-103.
  24. ↑ Jump up to:24.0 24.1 Dick MB, Nielson KA, Beth RE, Shankle WR, Cotman CW. Acquisition and long-term retention of fine motor skill in Alzheimer’s-Disease. Brain and Cognition, 1995 Dec; 29(3): 294-306.
  25. ↑ Jump up to:25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Suttanon, P., Hill, K.D., Said, C., LoGuidice, D., Lautenschlager, N., Dodd, K. Balance and mobility dysfunction and falls risk in older people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2012 Jan, 91(1):12-23.
  26.  Sherrington C, Whitney JC, Lord SR, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Close JC. Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Dec 56(12):2234-43.
  27.  Garuffi M, Costa JLR, Hernández SS, Vital TM, Stein AM, Santos JGd, & Stella F. Effects of resistance training on the performance of activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 2013 Jun; 13(2): 322-328.
  28.  Bird, M, Hill, KD, Ball, M, Hetherinton, S, Williams, AD. The long-term benefits of a multi-component exercise intervention to balance and mobility in healthy older adults. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2011 Mar 52(2): 211-216.
  29. ↑ Jump up to:29.0 29.1 Perez, C.A., Carral, J.M. Benefits of physical exercise for older adults with Alzheimer’s Disease. Geriatric Nursing. 2008 Nov, 29(6): 384-391.
  30.  Anderson, JC. Stretching before and after exercise: effect on muscle soreness and injury risk. Journal of Athletic Training, 2005 Jul; 40(3): 218-220.
  31.  Heyn, P, Abreu, BC, & Ottenbacher, KJ. The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis 1. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2004 Oct; 85(10): 1694–1704.
  32. ↑ Jump up to:32.0 32.1 Morris JK, Vidoni ED, Johnson DK, Van Sciver A, Mahnken JD, Honea RA, Wilkins HM, Brooks WM, Billinger SA, Swerdlow RH, Burns JM. Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized controlled pilot trial. PLoS One. 2017 Feb 10;12(2)
  33.  Sorrell, J. (2008). Music as a healing art for older adults. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 2008 Mar; 46(3): 21-4.
  34. ↑ Jump up to:34.0 34.1 Schneider S, Münte T, Rodriguez-Fornells A, Sailer M., & Altenmüller E. Music-supported training is more efficient than functional motor training for recovery of fine motor skills in stroke patients. Music Perception.  27(4), 271–280.
  35.  Clements-Cortes, A. Buddy’s glee club: singing for life. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 2012 Jan; 37(4): 273-290.
  36.  Johnson, J., Louhivuori, J., Siljander, E. Comparison of well-being of older adult choir singers and the general population in Finland: a case-control study. Musicae Scientiae, 2017 Jun; 21(2): 178-194.
  37.  Alzheimer Society Canada, Dementia Number in Canada. 2019. Available from: [Accessed 13th May 2020].   
  38.  Murray ME, Shee AW, West E, Morvell M, Theobald M, Versace V, Yates M. Impact of the Dementia Care in Hospitals Program on acute hospital staff satisfaction. BMC health services research. 2019 Dec 1;19(1):680.
  39.  Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative (ONDRI). Enhance your communication with people living with dementia. Available from: (accessed 15 May 2020).
  40. ↑ Jump up to:40.0 40.1 Alzheimer’s Australia. Dementia care in the acute hospital setting: issues and strategies. Canberra: Australia Alzheimer’s Australia 2014. Report No.: 40.
  41.  Hall AJ, Burrows L, Lang IA, Endacott R, Goodwin VA. Are physiotherapists employing person-centred care for people with dementia? An exploratory qualitative study examining the experiences of people with dementia and their carers. BMC geriatrics. 2018 Dec;18(1):63.
  42.  Handley M, Bunn F, Goodman C. Dementia-friendly interventions to improve the care of people living with dementia admitted to hospitals: a realist review. BMJ open. 2017 Jul 1;7(7).