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  2. ↑ Jump up to:2.0 2.1 Radioopedia Achilles Tendinopathy Available: (accessed 10.6.2022)
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  4.  Very well health The Health Benefits of Glycosaminoglycans Available: (accessed 11.6.2022)
  5. ↑ Jump up to:5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Wilson JJ, Best TM. Common overuse tendon problems: a review and recommendations for treatment. American family physician. 2005 Sep 1;72(5):811-8.
  6. ↑ Jump up to:6.0 6.1 Paavola M, Kannus P, Järvinen TA, Khan K, Józsa L, Järvinen M. Achilles tendinopathy. JBJS. 2002 Nov 1;84(11):2062-76.
  7.  Cook JL, Purdam CR. Is tendon pathology a continuum? A pathology model to explain the clinical presentation of load-induced tendinopathy. British journal of sports medicine. 2009 Jun 1;43(6):409-16.
  8.  VAN DER, Arnt, and Liselot VAN DE WALLE. “Het excentrisch trainen van de kuitspieren.”
  9.  Radiopedia Paratenon Available: (accessed 10.6.2022)
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  14.  Gaida JE, Alfredson H, Kiss ZS, Bass SL, Cook JL. Asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology is associated with a central fat distribution in men and a peripheral fat distribution in women: a cross sectional study of 298 individuals. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2010 Dec;11(1):1-9.
  15.  Gaida JE, Ashe MC, Bass SL, Cook JL. Is adiposity an under‐recognized risk factor for tendinopathy? A systematic review. Arthritis Care & Research: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology. 2009 Jun 15;61(6):840-9.
  16.  Mokone GG, Schwellnus MP, Noakes TD, Collins M. The COL5A1 gene and Achilles tendon pathology. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2006 Feb;16(1):19-26.
  17.  September AV, Cook J, Handley CJ, van der Merwe L, Schwellnus MP, Collins M. Variants within the COL5A1 gene are associated with Achilles tendinopathy in two populations. British journal of sports medicine. 2009 May 1;43(5):357-65.
  18.  Abate M, Schiavone C, Salini V, Andia I. Occurrence of tendon pathologies in metabolic disorders. Rheumatology. 2013 Apr 1;52(4):599-608.
  19.  Ames PR, Longo UG, Denaro V, Maffulli N. Achilles tendon problems: not just an orthopaedic issue. Disability and rehabilitation. 2008 Jan 1;30(20-22):1646-50.
  20.  Eckenrode BJ, Kietrys DM, Stackhouse SK. Pain sensitivity in chronic Achilles Tendinopathy. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2019 Dec;14(6):945.
  21. ↑ Jump up to:21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Cook JL, Khan KM, Purdam C. Achilles tendinopathy. Manual therapy. 2002 Aug 1;7(3):121-30.
  22. ↑ Jump up to:22.0 22.1 KL. Luscombe, P. S. (2003). Achilles tendinopathy. Trauma, 215-225.fckLR
  23. ↑ Jump up to:23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 Martin RL, Chimenti R, Cuddeford T, Houck J, Matheson JW, McDonough CM, Paulseth S, Wukich DK, Carcia CR. Achilles pain, stiffness, and muscle power deficits: midportion Achilles tendinopathy revision 2018: clinical practice guidelines linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health From the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2018 May;48(5):A1-38.
  24. ↑ Jump up to:24.0 24.1 Hammer WI, editor. Functional soft-tissue examination and treatment by manual methods. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2007.
  25.  Wilson JJ, Best TM. Common overuse tendon problems: a review and recommendations for treatment. American family physician. 2005 Sep 1;72(5):811-8.
  26.  Shibuya N, Thorud JC, Agarwal MR, Jupiter DC. Is calcaneal inclination higher in patients with insertional Achilles tendinosis? A case-controlled, cross-sectional study. The Journal of foot and ankle surgery. 2012 Nov 1;51(6):757-61.
  27.  Royal London Hospital Test (CR)CRTechnologies. Available form
  28.  CRTechnologies.Arc SIgn Achilles (CR). Available form
  29.  Fouré A. New imaging methods for non-invasive assessment of mechanical, structural, and biochemical properties of human Achilles tendon: a mini review. Frontiers in physiology. 2016 Jul 27;7:324.
  30.  Robinson JM, Cook JL, Purdam C, Visentini PJ, Ross J, Maffulli N, Taunton JE, Khan KM. The VISA-A questionnaire: a valid and reliable index of the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. British journal of sports medicine. 2001 Oct 1;35(5):335-41.
  31. ↑ Jump up to:31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 31.4 31.5 BC Physical Therapy Tendinopathy Task Force: Dr. Joseph Anthony, Allison Ezzat, Diana Hughes, JR Justesen, Dr. Alex Scott, Michael Yates, Alison Hoens. Achilles Tendinopathy Toolkit. A Physical Therapy Knowledge Broker project supported by: UBC Department of Physical Therapy, Physiotherapy Associaton of BC, Vancouver Coastal Research Institute and Providence Healthcare Research Institute. 2012
  32.  Scott A, Huisman E, Khan K. Conservative treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. CMAJ. 2011 Jul 12;183(10):1159-65.
  33.  Rio E, Kidgell D, Moseley GL, Gaida J, Docking S, Purdam C, Cook J. Tendon neuroplastic training: changing the way we think about tendon rehabilitation: a narrative review. British journal of sports medicine. 2016 Feb 1;50(4):209-15.
  34. ↑ Jump up to:34.0 34.1 Malliaras P, Barton CJ, Reeves ND, Langberg H. Achilles and patellar tendinopathy loading programmes. Sports medicine. 2013 Apr 1;43(4):267-86.
  35.  Beyer R, Kongsgaard M, Hougs Kjær B, Øhlenschlæger T, Kjær M, Magnusson SP. Heavy slow resistance versus eccentric training as treatment for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. The American journal of sports medicine. 2015 Jul;43(7):1704-11.
  36.  Cook JL, Purdam CR. The challenge of managing tendinopathy in competing athletes. British journal of sports medicine. 2014 Apr 1;48(7):506-9.
  37.  Single leg heel raise isometric hold available from
  38.  Soleus calf raises-seated available from
  39.  Single leg heel raise isometric hold available from
  40.  Achilles Tendonitis Rehab Phase 3 available from
  41.  Scott A, Huisman E, Khan K. Conservative treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. CMAJ. 2011 Jul 12;183(10):1159-65.
  42.  Stasinopoulos D, Stasinopoulos I. Comparison of effects of exercise programme, pulsed ultrasound and transverse friction in the treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy. Clinical rehabilitation. 2004 Jun;18(4):347-52.
  43.  Joseph MF, Taft K, Moskwa M, Denegar CR. Deep friction massage to treat tendinopathy: a systematic review of a classic treatment in the face of a new paradigm of understanding. Journal of sport rehabilitation. 2012 Nov 1;21(4):343-53.
  44.  Paavola M, Kannus P, Järvinen TA, Khan K, Józsa L, Järvinen M. Achilles tendinopathy. JBJS. 2002 Nov 1;84(11):2062-76.
  45. ↑ Jump up to:45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 45.4 Alfredson, Håkan, and Jill Cook. “A treatment algorithm for managing Achilles tendinopathy: new treatment options.” British journal of sports medicine 41.4 (2007): 211-216.
  46. ↑ Jump up to:46.0 46.1 Silbernagel KG, Hanlon S, Sprague A. Current Clinical Concepts: Conservative Management of Achilles Tendinopathy. Journal of Athletic Training. 2020 May;55(5):438-47.